Silver and gold glyconanoparticles for colorimetric ...
|Title||Silver and gold glyconanoparticles for colorimetric bioassays|
|Author(s)||C. L. Schofield, A. H. Haines, R. A. Field, D. A. Russell|
|Abstract||Abstract: The color changes associated with the aggregation of metal nanoparticles has led to the development of colorimetric-based assays for a variety of target species. We have examined both silver- and gold-based nanoparticles in order to establish whether either metal exhibits optimal characteristics for bioassay development. These silver and gold nanoparticles have been stabilized with a self-assembled monolayer of a mannose derivative (2-mercaptoethyl -D-mannopyranoside) with the aim of inducing aggregation by exploiting the well-known interaction between mannose and the lectin Concanavalin A (Con A). Both metal glyconanoparticles were determined to be ca. 16 nm in diameter (using TEM measurements). Aggregation was observed on addition of Con A to both silver and gold nanoparticles resulting in a shift in the surface plasmon absorption band and a consequent color change of the solution, which was monitored using UV-visible spectrophotometry. Mannose-stabilized silver nanoparticles at a concentration of 3 nM provide an assay for Con A with the largest linear range (between 0.08 and 0.26 M). Additionally, the kinetic rate of aggregation of the silver-nanoparticle-based bioassay was significantly greater than that of the gold-nanoparticle system. However, in terms of sensitivity, the mannose-stabilized gold-nanoparticle-based assay was optimum with a limit of detection of 0.04 M Con A, as compared with a value of 0.1 M obtained for the mannose-stabilized silver nanoparticles. Additionally, a lactose derivative (11-mercapto-3,6,9-trioxaundecyl -D-lactoside) was used to stabilize gold nanoparticles to induce aggregation upon addition of the galactose specific lectin Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA120). To examine the specificity of the bioassay, lactose-stabilized gold nanoparticles were mixed with a solution of mannose-stabilized silver nanoparticles to give an aggregation assay capable of detecting two different lectins. When either Con A or RCA120 was added to the mixed glyconanoparticles, selective recognition of the respective natural ligand was shown by aggregation of a single metal nanoparticle. Centrifugation and removal of the aggregated species enabled further bioassay measurements using the second glyconanoparticle system.|
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