Evaluation of the cranial rectus abdominus muscle ...

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Title Evaluation of the cranial rectus abdominus muscle pedicle flap as a blood supply for the caudal superficial epigastric skin flap in dogs
Author(s) D. A. Degner, R. Walshaw, S. P. Arnoczky, R. J. Smith, J. S. Patterson, L. A. Degner, A. Hamaide, D. Rosenstein
Journal Veterinary Surgery: VS: The Official Journal of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons
Date 1996
Volume 25
Issue 4
Start page 292
End page 299
Abstract This study evaluates the cranial rectus abdominus muscle pedicle flap as the sole blood supply for the caudal superficial epigastric skin flap. This flap was composed of a cranially based rectus abdominus muscle pedicle flap that was attached to the caudal superficial epigastric island skin flap (including mammary glands 2 to 5) via the pudendoepigastric trunk. Selective angiography of the cranial epigastric artery in eight cadaver dogs proved that the arterial vasculature in the cranial rectus abdominus was contiguous with that in the caudal superficial epigastric skin flap. In the live dog study, three of six of the flaps failed because of venous insufficiency. Necrosis of mammary gland 2 occurred in two of six flaps. One of six flaps survived with the exception of the cranial most aspect of mammary gland 2. Angiography of the cranial epigastric artery proved that arterial blood supply to these flaps was intact. Histological evaluation of the failed flaps showed full-thickness necrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, the presence of severe congestion, and venous thrombosis. Retrograde venous blood flow through the flap was inconsistent, and hence resulted in failure of this myocutaneous flap. Use of this flap for clinical wound reconstruction cannot be recommended.

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