Probability of and risk factors for introduction of ...

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Title Probability of and risk factors for introduction of infectious diseases into Dutch SPF dairy farms: a cohort study
Author(s) G. van Schaik, Y. H. Schukken, M. Nielen, A. A. Dijkhuizen, H. W. Barkema, G. Benedictus
Journal Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Date 2002
Volume 54
Issue 3
Start page 279
End page 289
Abstract A 2-year cohort study was conducted to investigate the probability of disease introduction into Dutch dairy farms. The farms were tested regularly for diseases and were visited biannually to collect management data. Ninety-five specific pathogen-free (SPF) dairy farms were selected from a database of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1)-free farms to study the probability of, and risk factors for, introduction of BHV1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Dublin (S. dublin), and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (L. hardjo).Although most of the 95 SPF farms had a low risk on introduction of infectious diseases, one disease was introduced into 12 farms and two diseases were introduced into one farm. Three farms experienced an outbreak of BHV1, one farm an outbreak of L. hardjo, two farms BVDV, six farms S. dublin, and one farm both BHV1 and S. dublin. The total incidence rate was 0.09 (0.06-0.12) per herd-year at risk. The results suggest that the "non-outbreak" farms were significantly more closed than the "outbreak" farms. Direct animal contacts with other cattle should be avoided and professional visitors should be instructed to wear protective clothing before handling cattle.

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