Outbreak of bovine virus diarrhea on Dutch dairy ...

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Title Outbreak of bovine virus diarrhea on Dutch dairy farms induced by a bovine herpesvirus 1 marker vaccine contaminated with bovine virus diarrhea virus type 2.
Author(s) H. W. Barkema, C. J. Bartels, L. van Wuijckhuise, J. W. Hesselink, M. Holzhauer, M. F. Weber, P. Franken, P. A. Kock, C. J. Bruschke, G. M. Zimmer
Journal Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde
Date 2001
Volume 126
Issue 6
Start page 158
End page 165
Abstract On 23 February 1999, the Dutch Animal Health Service advised all Dutch veterinary practices to postpone vaccination against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) immediately. The day before severe disease problems were diagnosed on four dairy farms after vaccination with the same batch of BHV1 marker vaccine. Using monoclonal antibodies, bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) type 2 was found in the vaccine batch. This paper describes an outbreak of BVDV type 2 infection caused by the use of a batch of modified live BHV1 marker vaccine contaminated with BDVD. Sources of information used were reports of farm visits, minutes of meetings, laboratory results, and oral communications from the people involved. The first symptoms of disease were observed on average six days after vaccination. Morbidity was high on 11 of the 12 farms. On five farms more than 70% of the animals became ill, while on one farm no symptoms could be detected. During the first week after vaccination, feed intake and milk production decreased. During the second week, some animals became clinically diseased having nasal discharge, fever, and diarrhoea. At the end of the second week and at the start of the third week, the number of diseased animals increased rapidly, the symptoms became more severe, and some animals died. Mortality varied among herds. Necropsy most often revealed erosions and ulcers of the mucosa of the digestive tract. In addition, degeneration of the liver, hyperaemia of the abomasum, and swollen mesenterial lymph nodes and swollen spleen were found. On 11 of the 12 farms all animals were culled between 32 and 68 days after vaccination after an agreement was reached with the manufacturer of the vaccine. This was the third outbreak of BVD in cattle after administration of a contaminated vaccine in the Netherlands. The possibilities to prevent contamination of a vaccine as a consequence of infection of fetal calf serum with BVDV are discussed. Improvement of controls to prevent contamination before and during vaccine production, and improvement of the monitoring of side-effects is necessary.

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