Resistance to paclitaxel is proportional to cellular ...
|Title||Resistance to paclitaxel is proportional to cellular total antioxidant capacity|
|Author(s)||B. Ramanathan, K. Jan, C. Chen, T. Hour, H. Yu, Y. Pu|
|Abstract||Paclitaxel, one of the most commonly prescribed chemotherapeutic agents, is active against a wide spectrum of human cancer. The mechanism of its cytotoxicity, however, remains controversial. Our results indicate that paclitaxel treatment increases levels of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide (NO), oxidative DNA adducts, G2-M arrest, and cells with fragmented nuclei. Antioxidants pyruvate and selenium, the NO synthase inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, and the NO scavenger manganese (III) 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide all decreased paclitaxel-mediated DNA damage and sub-G1 cells. In contrast, the glutamylcysteine synthase inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) increased the sub-G1 fraction in paclitaxel-treated cells. These results suggest that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are involved in paclitaxel cytotoxicity. This notion is further supported with the observation that concentrations of paclitaxel required to inhibit cell growth by 50% correlate with total antioxidant capacity. Moreover, agents such as arsenic trioxide (As2O3), BSO, 2-ME, PD98059, U0126 [mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitors], and LY294002 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor), all of which decrease clonogenic survival, also decrease the total antioxidant capacity of paclitaxel-treated cells, regardless whether they are paclitaxel sensitive or paclitaxel resistant. These results suggest that paclitaxel chemosensitivity may be predicted by taking total antioxidant capacity measurements from clinical tumor samples. This, in turn, may then improve treatment outcomes by selecting out potentially responsive patients.|
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