Comparing headphone and speaker effects on simulated ...



Title Comparing headphone and speaker effects on simulated driving
Author(s) Thomas M. Nelson, Thomy H. Nilsson
Journal Accident Analysis & Prevention
Date 1990
Volume 22
Issue 6
Start page 523
End page 529
Abstract 12 male experienced drivers (mean age 19 yrs) drove for 3 hrs in an automobile simulator while listening to music at sound level 63 dB from stereo headphones during one session and from a dashboard speaker during another session. Ss were required to steer a mountain highway, maintain a certain speed, shift gears, and respond to occasional hazards. Steering and speed control were dependent on visual cues. The need to shift and the hazards were indicated by sound and vibration effects. With the headphones, the Ss' average reaction time (RT) for the most complex task (shifting gears) was about one-third second longer than with the speaker. The use of headphones did not delay the development of subjective fatigue.
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