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Calpains and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have both been implicated in renal cell death following exposure to reactive chemical toxicants (RCTs). Therefore, we explored the link between ER stress, calpain, and cell death in renal cell injury due to model RCTs (iodoacetamide, menadione, tert-but...
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Prior induction of an endoplasmic reticulum stress response results in protection against reactive cytotoxins in the LLC-PK1 cell line. The purpose of this investigation was to determine therefore if the endoplasmic reticulum was disrupted by iodoacetamide, tert-butylhydroperoxide or sulfamethoxazol...
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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in an array of cellular functions that play important roles in xenobiotic toxicity. The ER contains the majority of cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, as well as a number of conjugating enzymes. In addition to its role in drug bioact...
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OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a deficiency in systemic or local (pars intermedia) antioxidant capacity is associated with pituitary pars intermedia oxidative stress and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) in horses. SAMPLE POPULATION: Blood samples from 20 horses with PPID and 20 healthy ...
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BACKGROUND: Serum total alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity commonly is high in dogs receiving phenobarbital. Specific isoenzymes responsible for this increase are not well documented. OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were 1) to qualitatively and quantitatively describe serum AP isoenzymes in p...
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of sample handling, storage, and collection time and season on plasma alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) concentration in healthy equids. ANIMALS: 11 healthy Standardbreds and 13 healthy semiferal ponies. PROCEDURE: Plasma alpha-MSH concentration was m...
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Prazosin is a readily available alpha-adrenergic antagonist that may be useful in the management of functional urethral obstruction in companion animals. This study used urethral pressure profilometry to evaluate the urethral effects of prazosin and phenoxybenzamine in healthy, non-sedated, male Bea...
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Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) causes rare hypersensitivity syndrome reactions characterized by fever and multi-organ toxicity. Covalent binding of SMX reactive metabolites to cellular proteins has been demonstrated but the link between cytotoxicity and targets of covalent binding has not been explored. We ...
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The incidence of adverse reactions to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) combination products is higher in patients with AIDS than in the general population. Idiosyncratic adverse reactions to SMX are believed to be dependent upon the formation of the reactive intermediate, sulfamethoxazole hyd...
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Sulphamethoxazole has been associated with the occurrence of hypersensitivity reactions. There is controversy as to whether the immune response is metabolism-dependent or -independent. We have therefore investigated the site of antigen formation and the nature of the drug signal presented to the imm...
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In a retrospective study, at least 10% of dogs receiving potassium bromide/phenobarbital combination therapy, compared with 0.3% of dogs receiving phenobarbital monotherapy, had probable pancreatitis. Pancreatitis may be a more frequent and more serious adverse effect of potassium bromide/phenobarbi...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis for a relative deficiency in the cat of cytosolic arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), an enzyme family that is important in the metabolism of xenobiotics and that normally consists of at least two related enzymes, NAT1 and NAT2. N-acety...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis in the dog for an unusual and absolute deficiency in the activity of cytosolic N-acetyltransferase (NAT), an enzyme important for the metabolism of arylamine and hydrazine compounds. NAT activity towards two NAT substrates, p-aminobenzoi...
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Sulfonamide antimicrobials cause a delayed-onset, hypersensitivity-type syndrome characterized by fever, skin rash and multiorgan toxicity occurring 7 to 14 days after initiation of therapy. The pathogenesis is believed to be immune-mediated. We investigated whether patients with delayed-onset sulfo...
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Sulphonamide hypersensitivity reactions are believed to be mediated through reactive intermediates derived from oxidation of the para-amino group to form sulphonamide hydroxylamines. Sulphamethoxazole hydroxylamine (SMX-HA) can be acetylated by N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes to form an acetoxy me...
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Potentially serious idiosyncratic reactions associated with sulfamethoxazole (SMX) include systemic hypersensitivity reactions and hepatotoxicity. Covalent binding of SMX to proteins subsequent to its N-hydroxylation to form N4-hydroxysulfamethoxazole (SMX-HA) is thought to be involved in the pathog...
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The expression of constitutive and inducible cytochrome P450s has been shown to be downregulated by interferon through an unknown pretranslational mechanism that depresses the mRNA encoding P450 apoproteins. To establish an association between gene transcription and P450 apoprotein downregulation by...
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The clearance of sulphamethoxazole (SMX), a compound metabolised primarily by the N-acetyltransferase NAT1, is increased in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We assessed the activity and kinetic properties of NAT1 in lysates of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from CF (n = 17) and control ...
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Variation in the formation and disposition of the hydroxylamine of (SMX-HA) is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of sulfamethoxazole (SMX)-induced idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. We hypothesized that, in analogy to carcinogenic arylamines, SMX-HA might be further converted ...
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Interferon (IFN) has long been recognized to downregulate cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism. Some investigations have shown that induced P450 enzymes tend to be more resistant to the depressant effect of IFN, whereas constitutive forms of P450 are uniformly depressed by IFN. We examined the e...