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In this article, we compare quantitatively the efficiency of three different protocols commonly used in commercial defibrillators. These are based on monophasic and both symmetric and asymmetric biphasic shocks. A numerical one-dimensional model of cardiac tissue using the bidomain formulation is us...
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Alternans of action potential duration has been associated with T wave alternans and the development of arrhythmias because it produces large gradients of repolarization. However, little is known about alternans dynamics in large mammalian hearts. Using optical mapping to record electrical activatio...
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Defining the cellular electrophysiological mechanisms for ventricular tachyarrhythmias is difficult, given the wide array of potential mechanisms, ranging from abnormal automaticity to various types of reentry and kk activity. The degree of difficulty is increased further by the fact that any partic...
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Cardiac electrical alternans, characterized by a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential waveform, is a naturally occurring phenomenon, which can occur at sufficiently fast pacing rates. Its presence has been putatively linked to the onset of cardiac reentry, which is a precursor to ventricular...
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As part of a 3-wk intersession workshop funded by a National Science Foundation Expeditions in Computing award, 15 undergraduate students from the City University of New York(1) collaborated on a study aimed at characterizing the voltage dynamics and arrhythmogenic behavior of cardiac cells for a br...
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The pattern of action potential propagation during various tachyarrhythmias is strongly suspected to be composed of multiple re-entrant waves, but has never been imaged in detail deep within myocardial tissue. An understanding of the nature and dynamics of these waves is important in the development...
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Repolarization alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential duration, has been putatively linked to the onset of cardiac reentry. Anti-alternans control strategies can eliminate alternans in individual cells by exploiting the rate dependence of action potential duration. The same approa...
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We present details of a novel bioelectric interface formed by placing microfabricated probes into insect during metamorphic growth cycles. The inserted microprobes emerge with the insect where the development of tissue around the electronics during the pupal development allows mechanically stable an...
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BACKGROUND: Electrically based therapies for terminating atrial fibrillation (AF) currently fall into 2 categories: antitachycardia pacing and cardioversion. Antitachycardia pacing uses low-intensity pacing stimuli delivered via a single electrode and is effective for terminating slower tachycardias...
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We have shown previously that verapamil reduces the slope of the action potential duration (APD) restitution relation, suppresses APD alternans and converts ventricular fibrillation (VF) into a periodic rhythm. To determine whether these effects result primarily from reduction of the APD restitution...
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Heterogeneity of cardiac electrical properties can lead to heart rhythm disorders. Numerical studies have shown that stimuli chosen to maximize dynamic heterogeneity terminate wave propagation. However, experimental investigations suggest that similar sequences induce fragmentation of the wave front...
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A perspective on systems containing many action potential waves that, individually, are prone to spiral wave breakup is proposed. The perspective is based on two quantities, 'predator' and 'prey,' which we define as the fraction of the system in the excited state and in the excitable but unexcited s...
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Background: Hypothesis: Animals: Methods: Results: Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Lidocaine is most frequently used to treat ventricular arrhythmias. However, lidocaine may have an antiarrhythmic effect for certain supraventricular arrhythmias.We hypothesized that lidocaine would be effective ...
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BACKGROUND: Dynamically induced heterogeneities of repolarization may lead to wave-front destabilizations and initiation of ventricular fibrillation (VF). In a computer modeling study, we demonstrated that specific sequences of premature stimuli maximized dynamically induced spatial dispersion of re...
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Objective: Animals: Procedures: Results: Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: To determine the type of atrial fibrillation induced by use of 2 pacing protocols during fentanyl and pentobarbital anesthesia before and after administration of atropine and to determine the organization of electrical acti...
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The effectiveness of chaos control in large systems increases with the number of control sites. We find that electric field induced wave emission from heterogeneities (WEH) in the heart gives a unique opportunity to have as many control sites as needed. The number of pacing sites grows with the ampl...
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The relationships between key features of the cardiac electrical activity, such as electrical restitution, discordant alternans, wavebreak, and reentry, and the onset of ventricular tachyarrhythmias have been characterized extensively under the condition of constant rapid pacing. However, it is unli...
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The article discusses how the techniques of nonlinear dynamics can applied to the study and prevention of cardiac arrhythmias or heart rhythm disorders. The authors discuss how cardiac alternans offer a new therapeutic approach to treating heart rhythm disorders. Alternans are period doubling oscill...
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Alternation in the duration of consecutive cardiac action potentials (electrical alternans) may precipitate conduction block and the onset of arrhythmias. Consequently, suppression of alternans using properly timed premature stimuli may be antiarrhythmic. To determine the extent to which alternans c...
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In this paper, we report on ultrasonically actuated silicon thin microprobes that successfully penetrated canine cardiac tissue in vitro, and recorded the electrophysiological signals from multiple sites simultaneously within the heart wall. The penetration force--maximum force encountered by the pr...
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BACKGROUND: Restitution kinetics and alternans of ventricular action potential duration (APD) have been shown to be important determinants of cardiac electrical stability. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that APD restitution and alternans properties differ between normal and diseased human v...
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Non-viral gene vectors have attracted much attention recently due to setbacks with viral delivery systems. Here a new non-viral delivery system based on nanobiohybrids synthesized by the intercalation of a full gene and promoter encoding Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) between the layers of an inorg...