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There is disclosed a process for detecting an RNA virus in a tissue cell or fluid sample, e.g. clinical, suspected of containing the virus. The process comprises heating the sample to a temperature sufficient for protein uncoating the RNA virus, in the presence of an RNase enzyme inhibitor active at...
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Haemic neoplasia (HN) is a leukemia-like disease that affects at least 20 species of marine bivalves including soft shell clam, Mya arenaria. Since the disease was discovered in 1969, the etiology remains unknown. A retroviral etiology has been suggested based on the detection of reverse transcripta...
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The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistency was examined in 12 Holstein dairy herds in Charlottetown, Canada, from Feb. 2009 to Oct. 2009. A total of 469 serum and ear notch biopsy pairs were collected. Depending upon the age and vaccination status, the sampled animals were divi...
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Since all retroviruses possess reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme, reverse transcriptase activity has been the main supportive evidence of retroviral etiology of haemic neoplasia (HN) in soft shell clams, Mya arenaria. The objective of the present study was to search for a putative retrovirus in vari...
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A significant proportion of infected mink of non-Aleutian genotype naturally resists progression to immune complex disease. The nature of the AD resistance is presumably genetic. While hypergammaglubulinemia can be insensitively detected by an iodine test, more sensitive diagnosis of hyper-γ globul...
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Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is a very important fish virus in the Northern hemisphere and there is continued interest in understanding the mechanisms of its pathogenesis and persistence in fish. In this study, the permissive fish cell lines SHK-1, CHSE-214 and TO were used to determine whe...
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Detection/removal control method of Aleutian disease by CIEP detection of ADV-antibody and farm or barn depopulation/repopulation, have been the recommended approaches of AD control since mid 1970s. The detection/removal was, at least under common N. American husbandry conditions, unsuccessful in co...
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This report identifies and genotypes the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in up to 20 years old archival formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues of bovine foetuses and calves. Samples from 6 presumably BVDV aborted foetuses and 3 calves diagnosed with mucosal disease were tested by immu- ...
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Reverse transcriptase (RT) activity has been reported in bivalves affected by haemic neoplasia (HN). Since all retroviruses have RT, detection of RT activity was regarded as evidence for the retroviral etiology of HN. This study investigates the relationship between RT levels and the progress of HN ...
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Infection with bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) occurs worldwide and causes serious economic losses due to the deaths of animals, abortions, decreased milk production, and loss of body weight. BHV-1 is frequently found in bovine semen and is transmitted through natural service and artificial insemi...
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Antibody-induced conformational changes of proteins have been recently frequently suggested to explain a variety of observations. In spite of the fundamental importance of this phenomenon for both in vivo and in vitro antigen-antibody interactions, it is not generally accepted because of the lack of...
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Peripheral blood lymphocytes, intraepithelial lymphocytes from the small intestine and lymphocytes from the thymus, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches from 5 young adult pigs were used as effector cells in a spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity chromium release assay against PK-15 ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the ontogeny in the pig of effector lymphocytes mediating antibody-dependent and spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity against target cells infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus. The same activities were also studied in sows in late pregnancy...
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When porcine peripheral blood leucocytes were fractionated, lymphocytes were the most active effectors in both antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity (SCMC), although both polymorphs and macrophages showed some activity in ADCC. Adsorption of ...
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Treatment of porcine lymphocytes with trypsin reduced their spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity (SCMC) activity against target cells persistently infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus (PK15-TGE cells), but had no effect on antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). SCMC act...
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The objective of this study was to determine whether porcine peripheral blood leukocytes and intestinal intraepithelial leukocytes can mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity against target cells infected with transmissible gastroenteritis vir...
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The ontogeny in the pig of effector lymphocytes mediating antibody-dependent and spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity against target cells infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus was investigated. The same activities were also studied in sows in late pregnancy and early lactation. Periph...
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In two experimental rearing houses with new-born non-colostral calves, separated from their mothers at birth and artificially fed colostrum or colostral whey, the epizootological situation was very favourable throughout the time of observation. The respiratory syndrome occurred in both cases as a re...
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Numerous conventional vaccines for animal use are currently available, and many of these vaccines have been instrumental in the control of infectious diseases of major economic importance. A vaccine has even been instrumental in global eradication of smallpox, an important human disease. However, ma...
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