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(+)-Bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation, a commonly used marker of hepatic CYP2D6 activity, was investigated in human and rhesus monkey intestinal microsomes and compared with that in hepatic microsomes. The cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH)-mediated metabolism of (+)-bufuralol suggested that at least two enzymes...
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Eighteen healthy Caucasians were evaluated for the systemic acetylation of a caffeine metabolite using the urinary caffeine metabolite ratio 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil (AFMU) to 1-methylaxanthine (1X) and for N-acetyltransferase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (MN...
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Sulphonamide idiosyncratic toxicosis has been reported in 28 dogs. Non-septic polyarthritis and fever occurring after 8 to 21 days therapy was the most common manifestation. Of 22 dogs with this syndrome, 7 were Doberman Pinschers. In humans, inherited decreased ability to detoxify sulphonamide hydr...
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Sulphamethoxazole has been associated with the occurrence of hypersensitivity reactions. There is controversy as to whether the immune response is metabolism-dependent or -independent. We have therefore investigated the site of antigen formation and the nature of the drug signal presented to the imm...
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The clearance of sulphamethoxazole (SMX), a compound metabolised primarily by the N-acetyltransferase NAT1, is increased in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We assessed the activity and kinetic properties of NAT1 in lysates of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from CF (n = 17) and control ...
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Seven dogs with histories of intermittent vomiting and diarrhoea had greatly elevated alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities and total bilirubin concentrations. Exploratory laparotomy in each dog revealed a 3 to 10 cm mass in the body of the pancreas and obstruction of the comm...
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Calpains and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have both been implicated in renal cell death following exposure to reactive chemical toxicants (RCTs). Therefore, we explored the link between ER stress, calpain, and cell death in renal cell injury due to model RCTs (iodoacetamide, menadione, tert-but...
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Potentially serious idiosyncratic reactions associated with sulfamethoxazole (SMX) include systemic hypersensitivity reactions and hepatotoxicity. Covalent binding of SMX to proteins subsequent to its N-hydroxylation to form N4-hydroxysulfamethoxazole (SMX-HA) is thought to be involved in the pathog...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis in the dog for an unusual and absolute deficiency in the activity of cytosolic N-acetyltransferase (NAT), an enzyme important for the metabolism of arylamine and hydrazine compounds. NAT activity towards two NAT substrates, p-aminobenzoi...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis for a relative deficiency in the cat of cytosolic arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), an enzyme family that is important in the metabolism of xenobiotics and that normally consists of at least two related enzymes, NAT1 and NAT2. N-acety...
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Prior induction of an endoplasmic reticulum stress response results in protection against reactive cytotoxins in the LLC-PK1 cell line. The purpose of this investigation was to determine therefore if the endoplasmic reticulum was disrupted by iodoacetamide, tert-butylhydroperoxide or sulfamethoxazol...
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Interferon (IFN) and IFN inducers down-regulate hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) through a pretranslational mechanism involving depression of P450 mRNA levels and a subsequent decrease in P450 synthesis. Current evidence suggests that interferon induces the synthesis of a protein which subsequently me...
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Inherited defects in detoxification of reactive metabolites of drugs predispose patients to "hypersensitivity" reactions. Covalent interaction of metabolites with cell macromolecules leads to cytotoxic and immunologic outcomes, manifested clinically by multisystem syndromes with variable o...
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The incidence of adverse reactions to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) combination products is higher in patients with AIDS than in the general population. Idiosyncratic adverse reactions to SMX are believed to be dependent upon the formation of the reactive intermediate, sulfamethoxazole hyd...
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of sample handling, storage, and collection time and season on plasma alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) concentration in healthy equids. ANIMALS: 11 healthy Standardbreds and 13 healthy semiferal ponies. PROCEDURE: Plasma alpha-MSH concentration was m...
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The expression of arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) in leukocytes was investigated using p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and sulfamethazine (SMZ), substrates which are preferentially acetylated by the monomorphic NAT1 and polymorphic NAT2 enzymes, respectively. Activity towards both substrates was dete...
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Gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas are the most common nonhaematopoietic gastrointestinal tumours in cats. They are highly malignant tumours causing intestinal obstruction due to the annular, stenosing nature to their growth. Current literature is largely based on surveys of pathology records. Therefo...
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Sulphonamide hypersensitivity reactions are believed to be mediated through reactive intermediates derived from oxidation of the para-amino group to form sulphonamide hydroxylamines. Sulphamethoxazole hydroxylamine (SMX-HA) can be acetylated by N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes to form an acetoxy me...
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Glutathione transferase mu activity, a marker for susceptibility to lung cancer and chemically induced cytogenetic damage, is not a predictive index for the predisposition to sulphonamide hypersensitivity reactions. However, considering the functional diversity and broad, overlapping substrate speci...
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Sulfonamides are oxidized to protein reactive cytotoxic metabolites by murine hepatic microsomes. Mononuclear leukocytes from patients with idiosyncratic reactions to sulfonamides were more susceptible to toxicity from these metabolites than were leukocytes from a control population, suggesting that...