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The potential for cross-transmission of Perkinsus karlssoni from bay scallops Argopecten irradians to various native Atlantic Canadian species of shellfish was investigated. Lateral proximal transmission was investigated whereby infected moribund bay scallops were maintained with uninfected individu...
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Improved rates of in vitro excystation of sporozoites from sporocysts of Sarcocystis capracanis, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Sarcocystis tenella were obtained by pretreating sporocysts with an aqueous sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution followed by incubation in excysting fluid (EF). After pretreatment ...
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Two hundred and eleven of 4404 (4.8%) crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) collected in the winters of 1976-77 and 1977-78 in Essex County, southwestern Ontario, were infected with Diplotriaena tricuspis (Fedtschenko, 1874) Henry and Ozoux, 1909. Prevalence of potentially patent infections was only 2.6%, h...
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The site of development, survival of larvae, and reaction to the presence of Physaloptera maxillaris [a nematode parasite of the skunk Mephitis mephitis that has arthropod intermediate hosts] are described in Gryllus pennsylvanicus Burm. (Acheta pennsylvanicus) and Blattella germanica (L.) from obse...
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Oocysts of Eimeria stigmosa isolated from a wild juvenile lesser snow goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) were used in experimental infections of laboratory-reared geese. The structure of oocysts is described; a peculiar bumpy surface and a calyx-like thickening around the micropyle are illustra...
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In North America, one of the largest traditional surviving fisheries involves the coldwater clawed American lobster Homarus americanus. However, post-harvest losses are conservatively estimated at 10-15%, representing an economic impact of $50-75 million annually. The mandate of the Lobster Health R...
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In 1989, an unidentified protistan parasite, QPX (Quahaug Parasite X), was found in quahaugs Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758) from a hatchery on Prince Edward Island, Canada, which was suffering extensive mortalities. The parasite was identical to one reported from mass mortalities of wild pop...
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The development of the sarcocyst of Sarcocystis rauschorum in its intermediate host was studied. Lemmings were orally administered sporocysts of S. rauschorum obtained from snowy owls (Nyctea scandiaca). Beginning at 9 days postinoculation (DPI) and at various intervals to 84 DPI, skeletal muscle ti...
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The status of Perkinsus parasites continues to challenge scientists. Are they fungi or protistans? Are they apicomplexans? How many species of Perkinsus exist? Molecular biology is a powerful tool which has been used to address these questions of taxonomy and phylogeny. In particular, nucleotide seq...
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Zygote development and oocyst wall formation of Eimeria truncata occurred in epithelial cells in renal tubules and ducts of experimentally infected lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens). Post-fertilization stages were present throughout the kidneys beginning nine days post-inoculation. Initially...
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To study the potential for transmission of Perkinsus karlssoni, an apicomplexan parasite, among bivalve hosts, a long-term laboratory-scale, closed, artificial seawater system for shellfish was designed. Species of shellfish utilised were as follows: bay scallops, Argopecten irradians; blue mussels,...
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Two coccidia-free N. scandiaca were fed bradyzoites of S. rauschorum from varying lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni). At necropsy 7 days later zygotes, oocysts in various stages of sporulation, and fully sporulated oocysts were observed only in the lamina propria of the small intestine. Sporogony of...
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Free sporocysts of a Sarcocystis-like organism (11.6 x 9.2 micro m with a diffuse residuum of numerous small refractile granules) from intestinal scrapings of an N. scandiaca from Saskatchewan, Canada, were orally administered to laboratory-reared D. richardsoni. Merants were present in hepatocytes ...
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Anophryoides haemophila is a ciliated protozoan and the causative agent of bumper car disease in lobsters. An in vitro system was developed to assess the effects of chemotherapeutants on ciliate motility and morphology. Monensin, formaldehyde and pyrimethamine + sulphaquinoxaline caused a dose-depen...
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Skeletal and cardiac muscle from wild geese dead of avian cholera was examined and sarcocysts were found in skeletal muscle of 42 of 88 Lesser Snow Geese, Anser caerulescens caerulescens, 1 of 7 Ross Geese, Anser rossi, and 1 of 3 Canada Geese, Branta canadensis, collected during April and May in ce...
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Besnoitia was diagnosed in 2 caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) which died of pneumonia at the Assiniboine Park Zoo, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in 1983. During the following 3 years, besnoitiosis spread to an isolated herd of caribou, to mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and to reindeer (R....
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Behaviour and activity levels were measured in varying lemmings experimentally infected with the heteroxenous parasite, Sarcocystis rauschorum to test the hypothesis that the parasite alters behaviour of this intermediate host and thereby increases probability of transmission to the definitive host,...
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Three B. virginianus were fed oocysts of C. bubonis and 3 were each fed 2 mice which had been orally infected with sporulated oocysts of C. bubonis 4 weeks previously. Faeces were examined daily by flotation and daily oocyst production was estimated. One B. virginianus was given sporulated oocysts o...
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Lesions found in bay scallops Argopecten irradians imported into Atlantic Canada for culture were attributed to a parasite Perkinsus karlssoni. It appears, however, that stages from several organisms were combined to create the life cycle of P. karlssoni. The ultrastructure of the agent in lesions o...
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Sequences of nuclear-encoded small-subunit rRNA genes have been determined for representatives of the enigmatic genera Dermocystidium, Ichthyophonus, and Psorospermium, protistan parasites of fish and crustaceans. The small-subunit rRNA genes from these parasites and from the "rosette agent&quo...
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Sporulated oocysts (mean dimensions = 13.0 x 10.8 microns) and sporocysts (11.3 x 5.5 microns) of a coccidian resembling Frenkelia sp. or Sarcocystis sp. were present in the lamina propria of the small intestine of a naturally-infected northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) collected near...
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This review critically examines information on structure and developmental cycles, systematics and diagnosis, techniques, pathogenesis of infection, immunological responses, epidemiology, control and directions for future research on species of Sarcocystis in man, livestock, wildlife and other hosts...