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The Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami) is an unusual fish, excreting all its nitrogenous waste as urea because of its highly alkaline and buffered aquatic habitat. Here, using both physiological and molecular studies, we describe the mechanism of branchial urea excretion in this species. In viv...
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To protect cells from toxicity, metal-sensitive cellular compartments must be insulated against essential but toxic metals [such as copper (Cu)] accumulated in excess of metabolic requirements. We measured Cu concentrations at the organ and hepatic subcellular levels in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncor...
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Rates of oxygen consumption were measured in the geothermal, hot spring fish, Oreochromis alcalicus grahami by stopped flow respirometry. At 37 degree C, routine oxygen, consumption followed the allometric relationship: Vo sub(2)=0.738 M super(0.75), where Vo sub(2) is ml O sub(2)/h and M is body ma...
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Rainbow trout were exposed to sublethal waterborne Cd (5 and 10mugL(-1)) and dietary Ca (60mgg(-1)), individually and in combination, for 30d to elucidate the interactive effects and evaluate the toxicological significance of mitochondrial responses to these cations in vivo. Indices of fish conditio...
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Zinc homeostasis was studied at the tissue and gill subcellular levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following waterborne and dietary exposures, singly and in combination. Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to 150 or 600 μg l−1 waterborne Zn, 1500 or 4500 μg g−1 dietary Zn, and a com...
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We investigated the interaction of temperature and copper (Cu) on mitochondrial bioenergetics to gain insight into how temperature fluctuations imposed by natural phenomena or anthropogenic activities would modulate the effects of Cu on cellular energy homeostasis. Mitochondria were isolated from ra...
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Molecular features of cadmium (Cd) and calcium (Ca) uptake and toxicity in rainbow trout liver mitochondria were studied using modulators of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) and rapid uptake mode (RaM). Malate-glutamate energized mitochondria w...
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Impairment of the electron transport chain (ETC) is implicated in cadmium (Cd)- and calcium (Ca)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. To localize the sites of the impairment, effects of 0-50μM Cd and Ca, singly and in combination, on complex I- to IV-driven respirations were investigated using isolat...
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The goal of the present study was to elucidate the modulatory effects of cadmium (Cd) on hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in light of the limited understanding of the mechanisms of multiple stressor interactions in aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver m...
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The goal of the present study was to elucidate the modulatory effects of cadmium (Cd) on hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in light of the limited understanding of the mechanisms of multiple stressor interactions in aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver m...
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There have been suggestions that analgesics be used by fish researchers. But in the absence of dose-response data for morphine, this suggestion seems imprudent. The purpose of the present study was to develop a dose-response relationship in fish using six doses of morphine. The response (movement of...