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S100B is a calcium-binding protein, which is produced primarily by glial cells. It modulates the proliferation and differentiation of neurons and glia by affecting protective and apoptotic mechanisms. Recently, several studies have shown increased serum S100B levels in patients with schizophrenia, s...
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Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy results in changes in behavior, and in the endocrine, immune and neurotransmitter systems, that simulates many of those seen in patients with major depression. The olfactory system in the rat forms a part of the limbic region in which the amygdala and hippocampus contr...
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Omega (n)-3 and n-6 fatty acids are important membrane components of neurons and immune cells, and related to psychiatric and inflammatory diseases. Increased ratio of n-6/n-3 in the blood has been reported in depressed patients and in students following stress exposure. The n-3 fatty acid, eicosape...
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The present study demonstrated that an omega (n)-3 fatty acid, ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (ethyl-EPA), supplemented diet significantly attenuated the stress/anxiety behavior of rats in the "open field" and elevated plus maze, which was induced by subchronic intracerebroventricular adminis...
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Reviews the interaction between anxiety and the immune system and modulating effects of benzodiazepines. Research indicates that anxiety induces immune-inflammatory changes pointing toward the complex regulatory responses in interleukin-6 signalling, decreased anti-inflammatory capacity of the serum...
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Examined immune-deficiency markers, i.e., serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), IL-1R antagonist (IL1RA), gp130, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by mitogen-stimulated whole blood and the availability of plasma tryptophan in 10 patients with primary sleep disorders, 6 patien...
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It has been reported that activation of the inflammatory response system (IRS) may play a role in the aging process and in the pathogenesis of the degenerative changes associated with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). This study examined the peripheral IRS in 31 normally aging Ss (age 22-91 yrs)...
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Recent evidence has suggested that an imbalance between membrane (n-3) and (n-6) fatty acids may contribute to the etiology of autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, the mechanisms by which eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), and arachidonic acid (AA) modulate...
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There is some evidence that antipsychotic drugs may have immunosuppressive effects. This study examined the in-vitro effects of different concentrations of antipsychotic agents on cytokine production by human whole blood.
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Evidence from clinical studies suggests that chronic exposure to physical and/or psychological stress profoundly affects the mental state and may be causally involved in anxiety and depressive disorders.
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Three common dosing regimens of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced model of Parkinson's disease (PD) were compared in C57BL/6 mice on behavior, striatal and extra-striatal neurotransmission, and brain cytokines, to clarify the differences between regimens on these v...
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The effect of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on rat antinociception was investigated. Intraventricular injection of 50 or 100ng AVP dose-dependently increased the pain threshold; In contrast, intraventricular injection of 10mul anti-AVP serum decreased the threshold; both intrathecal injection of 200ng ...
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The olfactory bulbectomized (OB) rat has been developed as an animal model of depression. In the novel "open field" environment, male OB rats showed a hyperactivity which was attenuated by chronic treatment with desipramine (7.5 mg/ kg) for 20 days. Neutrophil phagocytosis was suppressed by the lesi...
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This review attempts to critically assess the interplay between CRF, the immune and neurotransmitter systems, and behavior in chronic stress and depression.
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Macrophages produced proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory responses can cause many symptoms of depression, including direct stimulation of the HPA axis and secretion of cortisol. In depressed patients, hypercortisolism has been well described as one of the major symptoms and also as the cause ...
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Variations of plasma ACTH and corticosterone, splenic macrophage activity, and mitogen-induced cell proliferation were determined in male rats following 15 min of either neurogenic stress (restraint) or psychogenic stress (exposure to a ferret). The effects of these stressors were assessed in 2 stra...
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Examined the serum concentration of corticosterone, neutrophil phagocytosis, lymphocyte proliferation, leucocyte adhesiveness/aggregation (LAA), and differential white blood cell (WBC) count in 50 male rats following exposure to the behavioral despair and open-field tests.
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Examined whether cell proliferation in response to mitogens, natural killer cell (NK) activity, and macrophage functioning of mice may be influenced by either a neurogenic stressor (footshock) or psychogenic stressor (exposing the mouse to a predator, namely a rat).
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It has been demonstrated that the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with inflammatory disorders in the brain. Although the interactions of inflammatory cytokines with neurotrophins have been reported in vitro, the balance change between inflammatory cytokines and ...