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Hot branding has been used for many years by researchers to identify seals from a long distance. In livestock, cold branding has been proposed as an alternative because it is thought to be less painful. The purpose of this study was to compare the healing process of hot and cold brands applied to ha...
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Nodular gill disease characterized by severe multifocal epithelial hyperplasia was diagnosed in a group of rainbow trout fingerlings. Gills of a large proportion of fish transferred from the affected tank to smaller aquaria showed a marked decrease in severity of the lesions after 2 months. Repair o...
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Tyzzer's disease was diagnosed in four muskrats (Ondatra zibethica) found dead over a 2 month period in a single feed-house in a Saskatchewan marsh. No dead animals were found elsewhere in the marsh, although several hundred apparently healthy animals were trapped during this period. Similarities in...
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In August 1988 Coxiella burnetii was identified in the lungs of a 2-day-old dead kitten from Prince Edward Island by a direct fluorescent antibody test. The kitten was from a stray cat that had aborted fetuses about 10 days earlier. Examination showed no gross lesions, but multifocal, granulomatous ...
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Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from an arthritic elbow joint of a crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) which also had bilateral osteomyelitis of proximal tibias. The prevalence of Salmonella organisms in wild birds is reviewed briefly.
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Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) breeding at a Prince Edward Island colony, the largest in northeastern North America, shifted their nesting location to a nearby island after springtime shooting at the colony. Post-shift numbers at the new site (4525 nests) were 92% of the previous ...
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The first case of phocine distemper in a seal from Canadian waters and the first case of clinical phocine distemper in a harp seal, Phoca groenlandica, is reported. A two-month-old female harp seal stranded on Prince Edward Island in May 1991. Significant clinical findings were lethargy and severe c...
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Lungs from 48 feedlot cattle that had died from bacterial pneumonia were examined grossly and microscopically. Criteria based on microscopic lesions were adopted to age these pneumonias. In 38 cases, pneumonic lesions were of relatively uniform age throughout the affected tissue. In eight other case...
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In an outbreak of proliferative gill disease in laboratory rainbow trout fingerlings lesions were multifocal among filaments and uniquely severe in the distal region of affected filaments, forming nodules. This contrasted with the more common forms of proliferative gill disease in Ontario, such as b...
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Lesions induced in the gills of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) by exposure to acutely lethal aqueous concentrations of inorganic mercury and copper were examined by light and electron microscopy. Lesions were most severe during the first 48 hours of exposure to the metals and were characterized pri...
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Between 15 November and 13 December 1993, three cases of rabies of probable bat origin were confirmed in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the same area of Prince Edward Island, Canada, previously thought to be free of rabies in terrestrial mammals. Such clusters have rarely been described in North Ame...
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Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no differenc...
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Vessel-whale collision events represented the ultimate cause of death for 21 (52.5%) of the 40 North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) necropsied between 1970 and December 2006. Injuries seen in vessel-struck whales fall into two distinct categories: (1) sharp trauma, often resulting from ...
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A small commercial hunt for 5-7 weeks old grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) occurs intermittently around the Canadian Maritime provinces and may expand in the near future. We sought to better understand and, where possible, improve the harvesting methods of this hunt. We compared the use of the regula...
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Many subtypes of low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus circulate in wild bird reservoirs, but their prevalence may vary among species. We aimed to compare by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, histology, and immunohistochemistry the distribution and ...
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From winter 1997 to summer 1998, an epizootic of salmonellosis affected several species of songbirds over a large area of the eastern North American continent. This article describes the details of this epizootic in the Canadian Atlantic provinces, based on laboratory examination of dead affected bi...
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Between August 1992 and November 1995, 31 moribund or dead common loons (Gavia immer) found in the three Maritime provinces of Canada (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island) were necropsied. Eight of these birds were in good body condition and died acutely from drowning or trauma. The rem...
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Cloacal and pharyngeal swabs from 100 tree-nesting Double-crested cormorant (DCC) chicks were examined by culture for commensal and potentially pathogenic bacteria. No Salmonella or Erysipelothrix were isolated from the cloacal swabs. Twenty-two cloacal swabs were positive for Campylobacter, of whic...
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Of 4,268 wild ducks sampled in Canada in 2005, real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR detected influenza A matrix protein (M1) gene sequence in 37% and H5 gene sequence in 5%. Mallards accounted for 61% of samples, 73% of M1-positive ducks, and 90% of H5-positive ducks. Ducks hatched in 2005 accounted ...
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This report describes the first 4 years of an experimental rotation in ecosystem health offered to senior veterinary students in Canada. Faculty from the 4 Canadian veterinary colleges collaborated in offering the rotation once annually at one of the colleges. The first rotation was held in Guelph, ...