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The objectives of this paper are to provide an introduction to meta-analysis and systematic review and to discuss the rationale for this type of research and other general considerations. We highlight methods used to produce a rigorous meta-analysis and discuss some aspects of interpretation of meta...
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This paper summarizes the results of a project carried out between 1979 and 1982. The work is reported fully in six papers which are being published in Preventive Veterinary Medicine. [For Part 1 see VB 54, 1771]..
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A serological survey was undertaken to determine the prevalence of leptospirosis, and to investigate associations between leptospiral antibody titers, and herd measures of reproduction. Production records and leptospirosis serology were analyzed for 25 slaughter hogs from each of eleven randomly sam...
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A path analytic approach was used to study data collected on 23 traits of 226 Holstein-Friesians in a commercial dairy herd during May 1981-Oct. 1982. Rectal palpation to assess uterine involution and ovarian activity was performed at 15, 24 and 28 days post partum, and blood samples were collected ...
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Information systems projects in developing countries often run into difficulties and fail to meet their full objectives. This paper looks at the commonly used and recommended methodologies to determine if they fit with the objectives set for information systems and if they are appropriate for the hu...
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Herd level measures of health and productivity in Prince Edward Island dairy herds, computed monthly over a 4 year period, were evaluated. Descriptive statistics for 11 key measures of health and productivity were computed. The parameters cover the areas of milk production, reproductive performance,...
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The relationships between somatic cell counts, milk production and episodes of clinical mastitis were evaluated using data collected between 1979 and 1981 in 32 southern Ontario Holstein herds. Somatic cell counts were logarithmically transformed and the distribution of the resulting counts is prese...
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The objective of this study was to ascertain the value of variables measured on composite milk samples as predictors of mastitis in individual cows. The standard of comparison was the results obtained from the bacteriological examination of individual quarter foremilk samples. Cows were classified a...
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Three methods of assessing mastitis therapies are evaluated: (i) in vitro tests; (ii) experimental studies based on induced infections; (iii) field trials on commercial farms utilizing naturally occurring infections..
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Effects of disease on the risk of removal in Holstein-Friesian cows were investigated in a two and a half year study. Records were available from 141 sold cows, 415 culled cows and 1452 comparison cows in 32 commercial dairy herds within a 50 mile radius of Guelph, Ontario. Removals were subdivided ...
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Individual cow somatic cell counts (SCC) from the first 4 weeks of lactation were obtained from all cows on a cell-counting programme in Prince Edward Island for a period of 4 years. The prevalence of elevated counts (over 200 000 cells/ml) declined sharply in heifers (primiparous animals) from Day ...
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Thirty-two dairy herds within 50 miles of Guelph participated in the 2.5-year study (1979-81). Most herds were in the range of 30-45 milking cows. Three were in loose housing and 29 in tethered housing. All were turned out in summer, and 21 were let out for exercise in winter. The major roughage fed...
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Three case studies of the investigation of outbreaks of disease or deviations from target performance are presented. The first is a study of a mastitis problem in a dairy herd, made evident by increased somatic cell counts. The pattern of the production problem is carefully analyzed and conclusions ...
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OBJECTIVE: To document anatomic patterns of scintigraphic uptake and related orthopedic disease associated with racing activity in Standardbred horses. DESIGN: Retrospective study. ANIMALS: 64 Standardbred horses evaluated for lameness. PROCEDURE: Medical records at the time of discharge were review...
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Randomized controlled trials of veterinary vaccines are essential if we are to have a reasonable understanding of how those vaccines can be expected to perform when used in the field. This manuscript reviews a few (but certainly not all) of the key elements that need to be considered in the design o...
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Factors that affect somatic cell counts (SCC) in milk, interpretation of SCC, and management decisions resulting from these interpretations, are outlined. It is concluded that the SCC is an excellent tool for monitoring udder health on a herd basis, and that interpretation of individual cow SCC may ...
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Five sets of data from four separate sheep flocks (1445 ewes) were used to assess the effects of subclinical maedi-visna virus infection (as determined by serological procedures) on productivity in ewes. In general, infection with maedi-visna virus lowered productivity. Infection reduced conception ...
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