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Randomized controlled trials of veterinary vaccines are essential if we are to have a reasonable understanding of how those vaccines can be expected to perform when used in the field. This manuscript reviews a few (but certainly not all) of the key elements that need to be considered in the design o...
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Factors that affect somatic cell counts (SCC) in milk, interpretation of SCC, and management decisions resulting from these interpretations, are outlined. It is concluded that the SCC is an excellent tool for monitoring udder health on a herd basis, and that interpretation of individual cow SCC may ...
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Five sets of data from four separate sheep flocks (1445 ewes) were used to assess the effects of subclinical maedi-visna virus infection (as determined by serological procedures) on productivity in ewes. In general, infection with maedi-visna virus lowered productivity. Infection reduced conception ...
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A mail survey of disease occurrence in Canadian sheep flocks was conducted. The survey, which covered the period from September 1982 to August 1983, utilized flocks on the Record of Performance (ROP) sheep program and relatively complete data were available from 116 flocks. Data about lambing rates,...
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A recent review of studies on the effect of parasite control programmes on productivity of lactating dairy cattle has reported positive, but variable, results. A conjoint analysis survey was conducted, using dairy industry professionals and practicing veterinarians, to estimate the impact of various...
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A prospective cohort study was undertaken to determine calf-level factors that affected calf health status between birth and 6 months of age. A convenience sample of approximately 3300 female Holstein calves born in 1991 on two large Florida dairy farms was used for the study. Data collected on each...
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A case-control study was conducted to identify herd production, housing, and hygienic and therapeutic factors associated with Nocardia mastitis in dairy herds in Nova Scotia. The data were collected by on-farm interview with owners of 54 case and 54 control herds. Logistic regression was used to stu...
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Path analysis was used to determine the interrelationships between ambient temperature, age at calving, postpartum reproductive events and reproductive performance in dairy cows. The data used in the analysis were collected on 226 Holstein-Friesian cows calving in a commercial dairy herd during a 17...
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Developing an understanding of interrelationships among health, production, and livestock management, particularly nutrition, requires a holistic approach to the evaluation of the farming system. For both economic and animal welfare reasons, a detailed understanding of the implications of farm manag...
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A field trial was conducted to determine the effect of premilking teat disinfection (predipping) on several measures of mastitis in a commercial dairy farm where the predominant organisms isolated from intramammary infections were coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. Cows were randomly assigned to...
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A two-and-a-half-year study was undertaken in 32 commercial diary herds within a 50-mile radius of Guelph, Ontario, to evaluate relationships amongst diseases, production parameters and risks of removal in Holstein-Friesian cows. Diseases consisted of common clinical diseases as well as two subclini...
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Health and fertility data were recorded in 32 southern Ontario Holstein herds over a period of two and a half years. During that time 2.6% (80/3123) of breedings were followed by a postbreeding infusion. Breedings were divided into groups according to the breeding number (first to fifth), age group ...
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The effects of common clinical and two subclinical disease conditions (mastitis and ketosis) on milk production and reproductive performance in Holstein-Friesian cows were investigated in a two and a half year study. The data used were from 1315 lactation records and results from tests performed on ...
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A killed Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine was evaluated in a single swine herd in which the farrowing barn and weaner rooms were on one Mycoplasma-free farm, while the growing and finishing barn was on a separate farm on which Mycoplasma was present. The study was carried out in a cohort of pigs bor...
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Cows in 32 southern Ontario Holstein herds were monitored for subclinical ketosis for a period of two and one half years. Milk samples were routinely collected and the level of milk ketone bodies determined by the use of a commercial nitroprusside based test powder (reactions scored as negative, +1 ...
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The Finnish Healthy Hooves project was set up to determine the frequency of, and risk factors for various hoof lesions in Finnish dairy herds. Data were collected in the years 2003 and 2004. A large dataset of over 74,000 cow-level observations recorded by hoof trimmers was merged with production da...
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Data on 2875 lactations from 32 herds were analysed. Diseases of the reproductive tract tended to occur together in the same cow as did diseases of the mammary system. Subclinical diseases (mastitis and ketosis) were found to have a substantial impact on milk production/day of life; several clinical...