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Routine haematoxylin-eosin stained paraffin sections, were processed for electron microscopy, using a rapid method for localization of animal viruses. Formalin fixation was effective in preserving DNA as well as RNA viruses, however cellular fine structural details and organelles were not well prese...
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In the autumn of 2001, a survey was conducted to examine basic farm production and human resource characteristics of recirculation facilities in the United States and Canada currently growing finfish. An 86% response rate was achieved. The survey data indicate that this sector of aquaculture is quit...
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Clinical signs and histopathologic and ultrastructural features were consistent with those reported in globoid cell leukodystrophy in man, cat, and other breeds of dogs. The occurrence of the disorder in two clinically affected females from a related litter and a familial history of inbreeding suppo...
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Neurologic disease resulting from infection with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis was diagnosed in a fallow deer (Dama dama) from Georgia, USA, with clinical signs and histopathologic lesions similar to those reported for other accidental hosts of P. tenuis. Early 5th-stage parasites were found in the spi...
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This report describes a new syndrome affecting farmed Atlantic salmon on the Canadian east coast that has resulted in increased morbidity and mortality in affected stocks. The major pathological findings are apparent only microscopically and include renal interstitial haemorrhage and acute tubular n...
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Drugs used in aquaculture cover a wide range of chemotherapeutic compounds including basic chemicals, hormones, antibacterials and pesticides. The decision to treat an aquaculture product is complicated by the lack of pharmacokinetic data available on fish. Methods of drug administration, routes of ...
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Filamentous black yeasts from the genus Exophiala are ubiquitous, opportunistic pathogens causing both superficial and systemic mycoses in warm- and cold-blooded animals. Infections by black yeasts have been reported relatively frequently in a variety of captive and farmed freshwater and marine fish...
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Four hundred eighty mature marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected in late April from a mussel lease in an estuary in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Squash preparations made of reproductive gland (mantle) tissue of each mussel were stained with Wright-Giemsa stain and were examined by one inve...
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Domoic acid (DOM), the toxin involved in amnesic shellfish poisoning, was presented to live mussels (at 5 degree C, 28 ppt) in dissolved form (125 nM) and as food encapsulated in liposomes. Less than 1% of dissolved DOM and up to 6% of food-borne DOM was incorporated into mussel tissues. DOM absorbe...
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Visceral and systemic infection with a Dermocystidium -like organism was diagnosed recently in post-seawater entry smolts of Atlantic salmon farmed in the Bay of Fundy. In late summer and early fall, young fish developed "black smolt" disease, characterized by anorexia, lethargy and black skin. Para...
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Host-pathogen interaction models in aquatic species are useful tools for understanding the pathogenicity of diseases in cultured and wild populations. In this study we report the differential in vivo response of soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria) hemocytes against two strains of Vibrio splendidus. Respo...
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Although the mollusc immune system has been studied at the cellular level, the response to pathogens at gene expression level has not been thoroughly investigated. This study aimed to investigate the early molecular response of hemocytes of soft-shell clams, Mya arenaria, to Vibrio splendidus strain...
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Domoic acid is a neurotoxic amino acid responsible for an outbreak of human food poisoning in late 1987 following consumption of contaminated blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from eastern Prince Edward Island, Canada. In vitro techniques were used to examine the uptake of domoic acid by digestive gl...
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Glutamic acid (GA) and kainic acid (KA) are structurally related to domoic acid (DOM), a neurotoxic amino acid that caused human food poisoning in 1987, following consumption of toxic mussels (Mytilus edulis ) from Prince Edward Island, Canada. To study the difference in response of mussels to a phy...
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Chloramine-T is a commonly used therapeutic agent for the treatment of bacterial gill disease and related phenomena in the salmonid aquaculture industry. There is little known about its effects on healthy fish. Using a 24-tank replicate growth assay system, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (avera...
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An outbreak of food poisoning in Canada during autumn 1987 was traced to cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis ) from the Cardigan Bay region of eastern Prince Edward Island (P.E.I.). The toxin, identified as domoic acid, had not previously been found in any shellfish and this outbreak represents th...
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Immune function gene expression in Mya arenaria haemocytes was evaluated following in vivo infection with Vibrio splendidus LGP32-GFP and 7SHRW. Elongation factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha) with 2 (EF-2), after challenge with LGP32-GFP, and EF-1alpha with the ribosomal protein S-18, after challenge with 7SH...
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