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Eight female Peromyscus californicus were infected with 102 or 104 Toxoplasma gondii culture-derived tachyzoites (Type II or X) isolated from southern sea otters. All but 2 mice survived infection and developed antibodies to T. gondii. The 2 fatally infected mice were inoculated with 104 tachyzoites...
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The study objective was to assess the risk of transplacental transmission of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in foals from 4 California farms during 3 foaling seasons. Serum of presuckle foals and serum and colostrum of periparturient mares were tested using indirect fluorescent antibody te...
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A stochastic simulation model was developed to assess the risk of introduction of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection into a dairy herd through purchase of female replacement cattle. The effects of infection prevalence in the source herd(s), number of females purchased, and testing...
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Kidney tissues were sampled on 3 dates (March 1995, July 1995 and August 1996) from 162 juvenile rainbow trout obtained from a California State fish hatchery where N. salmonis (formerly Enterocytozoon salmonis) was endemic. Kidney tissues were used to prepare imprints stained with May-Grünwald Giem...
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Bivalve molluscs concentrate Cryptosporidium oocysts from fecal-contaminated aquatic environments and are therefore useful in monitoring water quality. A real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system was developed to allow for large scale quantitative detection of Cryptosporidium pp. in mu...
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Serum neutralization testing was used to determine transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) titres of up to 10 sows per herd for 392 herds that participated in the 3 month monitoring of sows and litters in the National Swine Survey. Of the sampled herds, 101 (25.8%) had sow seroprevalences of at least 80...
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Sheep inoculated with a virulent South African strain of bluetongue (BT) virus serotype 4 developed severe clinical signs and lesions characteristic of fulminant BT, including coronitis, hemorrhage and ulceration of the mucosal lining of the oral cavity and forestomaches, hemorrhage in the wall of t...
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Polycyclic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs/HAHs) are a diverse group of widespread and persistent environmental contaminants that can cause a variety of detrimental effects in vertebrates. As most available methods to detect these contaminants are expensive, labor and time intensive, and...
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Objective: Animals: Procedures: Results: Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: To measure the frequency and magnitude of reduced fibrinogen binding in a population of horses from a Thoroughbred breeding farm.444 Thoroughbred horses, 1 to 27 years old, including 316 females, 72 geldings, and 56 sexuall...
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The causes of morbidity and mortality in 17 free-living raptorial bird species of northern California between 1983 and 1994 were studied. Of 409 birds examined at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California, USA, 58% died of traumatic injuries and 30% died of infectious diseas...
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We developed a Bayesian approach to sample size calculations for studies designed to estimate disease prevalence that uses a hierarchical model for estimating the proportion of infected clusters (cluster-level prevalence) within a country or region. The clusters may, for instance, be villages within...
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Objective - To investigate the epidemiologic and financial impacts of targeted sampling of subpopulations of cows, compared with random sampling of all cows, for classification of dairy herd infection status for paratuberculosis. Animals - All cows from 4 infected herds with a low-to-moderate preval...
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We investigated the effect of raising runt white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) separately from dominant fish during the initial stages of grow-out in a commercial farm. Runt fish are poor-growers, have underdeveloped muscle mass, swim slowly and are more-frequently found at the top of the water...
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A combination of 3.3 mg/kg Telazol (1:1 mixture of tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride) and 1.6 mg/kg xylazine hydrochloride was used to immobilize 144 wild pigs (Sus scrofa) with blow darts. For 123 single injection immobilizations, mean induction times and effective handling perio...
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Patterns of temporal or spatial clustering of C. pseudotuberculosis infections were investigated in 134 infected horses compared with 800 control horses, randomly selected from all non-case horses examined at a veterinary medical teaching hospital, between July 1, 1992, and June 30, 1994. Admission ...
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A prospective cohort study was conducted to determine management, fish, and environmental risk factors for increased mortality and an increased proportion of runts for white sturgeon exposed to white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) and white sturgeon herpesvirus-2 (WSHV-2). The study was conducted betwee...
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201 Thoroughbred racehorses that died or were killed at California race-tracks between August 1992 and July 1994 were examined PM. Shoe characteristics were compared between case horses affected by fatal musculoskeletal injury (FMI, 155 horses), suspensory apparatus failure (SAF, 79), and cannon bon...
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Bayesian analyses of diagnostic test accuracy often require the assumption of constant test accuracy among populations to ensure model identifiability. In a prior study (Toft, N., Jørgensen, E., Højsgaard, S., 2005. Diagnosing diagnostic tests: evaluating the assumptions underlying the estimation ...
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A total of 96 isolates of P. multocida from swine herds with progressive atrophic rhinitis were characterized by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) of whole-cell DNA, ribotyping and plasmid analysis. For REA bacterial DNA was digested with SmaI and electrophoresed in 0.7% agarose, and fragments...
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As husbandry practices have improved, safe and effective contraception for captive wildlife management has become a necessity. Melengestrol acetate (MGA), a synthetic progestin, is highly effective and has been used in many zoo species. Long-term use of MGA has been associated with uterine lesions i...
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The objective of this study was to determine if viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was present in waste milk delivered and fed to calves on California calf ranches. Four calf-raising facilities in the Central Valley of California that fed pasteurized waste milk to calves were e...
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Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves provide a cutoff-independent method for the evaluation of continuous or ordinal tests used in clinical pathology laboratories. The area under the curve is a useful overall measure of test accuracy and can be used to compare different tests (or different...