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Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) testing for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in fecal samples is a rapid alternative to culture on Herrold egg yolk medium (HEYM), the traditional antemortem reference test for MAP. Although the sensitivity and specificity ...
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Objective: Sample Population: Procedures: Results: Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: To compare macrostructural and microstructural features of proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs) from horses with and without PSB midbody fracture to gain insight into the pathogenesis of PSB fracture.PSBs from 16 Thorou...
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Bison and elk in the greater Yellowstone area are the last-known reservoir of Brucella abortus in the United States. Diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging as there is no perfect reference test. The objectives of this study were to estimate the accuracy of the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) ...
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Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the cause of bluetongue, an emerging, arthropod-transmitted disease of ungulates. Bluetongue is characterized by vascular injury with hemorrhage, tissue infarction and widespread edema, lesions that are consistent with those of the so-called viral hemorrhagic fevers. To fur...
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Over a 2-yr study period, we investigated possible endogenous transplacental transmission of Neospora hughesi in 74 mare and foal pairs following the diagnosis of neuronal neosporosis in a weanling foal. Presuckle and postsuckle serum of each foal, serum and colostrum of each periparturient mare, an...
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As husbandry practices have improved, safe and effective contraception for captive wildlife management has become a necessity. Melengestrol acetate (MGA), a synthetic progestin, is highly effective and has been used in many zoo species. Long-term use of MGA has been associated with uterine lesions i...
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Highly reactive horses may pose risks to humans involved in equestrian activities. Among the factors that may affect horses' reactivity to external stimuli are pesticides used for fly control in equine facilities. The organophosphorus (OP) insecticide tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP) is used as a feed-throu...
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Equid herpesvirus-2 (EHV-2) infection is ubiquitous in horses. Although EHV-2 infection has been associated with several disease syndromes, its true pathogenic significance in horses remains uncertain. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), another gammaherpesvirus, has been shown to cause febrile illness in hum...
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The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is commonly used for evaluating the discriminatory ability of a biomarker. Measurements for a diagnostic test may be subject to an analytic limit of detection leading to immeasurable or unreportable test results. Ignoring the scores that are beyond t...
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Bluetongue is a vector-borne viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. The epidemiology of this disease has recently changed, with occurrence in new geographic areas. Various real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) assays are used to d...
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The STARD statement (www.stard-statement.org) emphasizes complete and transparent reporting of key elements of test accuracy studies. Guidelines for authors in many biomedical journals recommend adherence to these standards but explicit recommendations by editors of veterinary journals are limited. ...
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The availability of accurate diagnostic tests is essential for the detection and control of Toxoplasma gondii infections in both definitive and intermediate hosts. Sensitivity, specificity and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve are commonly used measures of test accurac...
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Diagnostic test evaluations (DTEs) for chronic infections are challenging because a protracted incubation period has to be considered in the design of the DTE, and the adverse effects of infection may be widespread and progressive over an animal's entire life. Frequently, the specific purpose o...
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Nucleotide sequences of 52 South African isolates of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) collected during 2004–2005 and including viruses of all nine AHSV serotypes, were used to design and develop a duplex real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) assay targeting the VP7 (S8) and ...
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The objective of this study was to establish reference hematologic and biochemistry values for adult riparian brush rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani riparius). Between February 2002 and December 2003, complete blood cell counts and serum biochemistry panels were done on blood samples collected for 252 h...
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Bayesian analyses of diagnostic test accuracy often require the assumption of constant test accuracy among populations to ensure model identifiability. In a prior study (Toft, N., Jørgensen, E., Højsgaard, S., 2005. Diagnosing diagnostic tests: evaluating the assumptions underlying the estimation ...
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Sera from 523 wild rodents were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using either an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (rats and mice, with titer 80 considered positive) or a latex agglutination test (LAT) (voles, squirrels, and pocket mice, with titer ≥32 considered positive). Seventee...
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Objective - To investigate herd characteristics and management practices associated with a high seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in dairy herds in central California. Sample Population - 60 randomly selected cows from each of 21 dairy herds. Procedures - Sera of se...
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Sheep inoculated with a virulent South African strain of bluetongue (BT) virus serotype 4 developed severe clinical signs and lesions characteristic of fulminant BT, including coronitis, hemorrhage and ulceration of the mucosal lining of the oral cavity and forestomaches, hemorrhage in the wall of t...
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We developed a stochastic simulation model to compare the herd sensitivity (HSe) of five testing strategies for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in Midwestern US dairies. Testing strategies were ELISA serologic testing by two commercial assays (EA and EB), ELISA testing...