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Bayesian analyses of diagnostic test accuracy often require the assumption of constant test accuracy among populations to ensure model identifiability. In a prior study (Toft, N., Jørgensen, E., Højsgaard, S., 2005. Diagnosing diagnostic tests: evaluating the assumptions underlying the estimation ...
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Half the sows and boars on each of 5 commercial farms that had histories of seasonal infertility were given 4 g vitamin C daily. The other half was unsupplemented. Of 423 sows which were allocated to the experiment during the summer-early autumn of 1978-79, 392 were available for mating during the c...
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This epidemiological study investigates the relationship between various factors associated with swine farms and the nitrate concentration of well water in the USA. Through a random sampling procedure, 605 swine farms located in 18 states were selected for inclusion in this study. A total of 631 wel...
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A total of 96 isolates of P. multocida from swine herds with progressive atrophic rhinitis were characterized by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) of whole-cell DNA, ribotyping and plasmid analysis. For REA bacterial DNA was digested with SmaI and electrophoresed in 0.7% agarose, and fragments...
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As husbandry practices have improved, safe and effective contraception for captive wildlife management has become a necessity. Melengestrol acetate (MGA), a synthetic progestin, is highly effective and has been used in many zoo species. Long-term use of MGA has been associated with uterine lesions i...
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The objective of this study was to determine if viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was present in waste milk delivered and fed to calves on California calf ranches. Four calf-raising facilities in the Central Valley of California that fed pasteurized waste milk to calves were e...
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Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves provide a cutoff-independent method for the evaluation of continuous or ordinal tests used in clinical pathology laboratories. The area under the curve is a useful overall measure of test accuracy and can be used to compare different tests (or different...
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A stratified random sample of 43 dairy herds in California was studied for 1 year as a component of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS). Costs associated with clinical disease and disease prevention were determined and the resulting costs extrapolated to the entire California dairy ...
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Bluetongue is an economically important arboviral disease of ruminants that is transmitted by hematophagous Culicoides midges. In light of dramatic recent changes in the global distribution of bluetongue virus (BTV), the goals of this study were to re-evaluate the prevalence of BTV infection of catt...
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Sera from 111 Ovis canadensis and 95 Odocoileus hemionus from california, USA, were tested using an indirect immunofluorescence assay for antibodies to 2 isolates of Babesia spp. recently obtained from these hosts in California. The study populations were from 6 locations: 3 areas of real or potenti...
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Important applications of diagnostic tests in non-clinical areas of veterinary medicine include surveillance, monitoring or screening for disease, prevalence estimation, and risk-factor studies. In this review, we address the processing and analysis of diagnostic data with special emphasis on serolo...
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An aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-based luciferase cell culture bioassay developed to detect 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other halogenated aromatics was modified and optimized to detect and quantitate polycyclic aromatics (PAHs). Twenty-four PAHs were analyzed, and subsequent EC50...
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Blood samples were collected from 145 goats >2years of age: 60 from the University farms and 74 and 12 goats from 2 farms which had a clinical history of caseous lymphadenitis. The synergistic haemolytic inhibition (SHI) test identified 36 goats that gave a positive reaction to caseous lymphadenitis...
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In a survey of gynaecological lesions in female zoo felids conducted to determine if the widely used progestin contraceptive melengestrol acetate (MGA) had adverse effects, numerous leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas were detected. This current study aimed to characterize the morphologic features of the...
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Our objective was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the agar-gel-immunodiffusion test (AGID), the ELISA, and the skin test for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in sheep using Bayesian methods without a gold standard. Fourteen flocks (2 465 sheep) we...
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A computer simulation study was carried out using production and reproduction data from 1642 dairy herds for 1984 to determine an optimum combination of sampling plan and sample size for obtaining precise estimates of the population and disease parameters of the California dairy cattle production. T...
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The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of equine herpesviruses (EHV) 1-5 in the nasal secretions (NS) of a cohort of 12 mares and their foals from birth to 6 months of age, estimate the prevalence of EHV-1-5 infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of selected foa...
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Two newly-born Anglo Nubian kids with clinical evidence of a severe neurological condition were examined. Pathological examination revealed extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation in neural tissue and in localized areas in the kidney, pancreas and lymphoid tissue. Biochemical investigations demonstrated a...
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In confined pig herds, located in Northwest-Germany and affiliated to a hybrid breeding organisation, 3 retrospective observational studies were performed looking at data collected before and after 1988 to study the effects of seasons on sow fertility. A subsequent field trial with 8 pig herds in 19...
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Melengestrol acetate (MGA) contraceptives are widely used in zoo felids to regulate fertility and may have deleterious effects on endometrial health. To determine whether MGA exposure was associated with endometrial disease, the genital tracts of 212 zoo felids (99 MGA treated and 113 control) repre...
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Environmental samples collected from each of 3 locations on 23 large California dairies were cultured to evaluate the utility of this approach for identifying herds infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Results were compared with concurrent ELISA testing of ≥60 animals in each h...
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Objective: To create a stochastic model to quantify the risk that shipments of cattle from regions within the United States would contain animals seropositive for bluetongue virus and to determine shipment-level accuracy of serologic testing by use of a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA). Sample Population...