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To determine the identity of the tick vector of enzootic B. gibsoni in California, USA, 2 common ixodid ticks were allowed to engorge upon B. gibsoni-infected dogs. Sporozoites were observed in the salivary glands of prefed nymphs of R. sanguineus that fed as larvae on B. gibsoni-infected dogs. A hi...
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A kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using antigenic extracts prepared from P. cuniculi and sera from 37 Psoroptes sp.-infested and 43 uninfested bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). Serial dilutions of these serum samples, representing 3 bighorn sheep subspecies and 9 geogr...
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The causes, incidence and control of arthritis in swine are discussed. Abattoir condemnation of carcasses for arthritis caused major economic losses for producers in New South Wales. Of 1 117 818 pigs slaughtered in 1979-1980, 1979 (0.18%) were condemned for arthritis.
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A serosurvey of antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV), and Ehrlichia canis in African (Lycanon pictus) and sympatric domestic canids was conducted in the Maasai Mara, Kenya, in 1989 and 1990. Samples were collected from about 20% of the sympatric and wild dog population...
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A prospective cohort study was undertaken in a farrow-to-farrow pig herd to describe patterns of pneumonia, and to identify host risk factors associated with the extent of pneumonic lesions in 2 weight groups of slaughter swine. The risk of coughing and pneumonic lesions increased with increasing ag...
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We developed and validated an enzyme immunoassay for immunoreactive pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (iPdG) in feces to monitor reproductive status in desert and Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). Fecal iPdG concentrations were strongly correlated (r = 0.71) with serum progesterone concentrat...
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The spreadsheet program based on Quattro-Pro version 2.0 was developed to assist researchers, teachers, and practitioners answer questions related to the development and application of diagnostic tests in epidemiological studies and clinical veterinary medicine. Many results are presented graphicall...
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A longitudinal study was undertaken in a swine herd with a continuous problem of foot abscess in unweaned pigs reared on a woven-wire floor. Of 3322, 4-day-old pigs, 199 (6%) developed abscess lesions involving claws and accessory digits before weaning. Lesions were first detected in 4-day-old pigs;...
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Studies were conducted under experimental and field conditions to determine the effect of infection with M. hyopneumoniae on the immune response in serum as measured by ELISA. Following intratracheal challenge or contact exposure, serologically negative pigs derived from mycoplasma-free piggeries de...
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Using computerized decision-tree analysis and simulation modelling to evaluate control and eradication strategies for pseudorabies virus (PRV) three alternative actions were considered for a hypothetical 100-sow, farrow-to-finish operation: (1) depopulation-repopulation, (2) test-and-removal of sero...
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A parasite control programme was designed for > 1200 exotic ungulates maintained in mixed species enclosures at the San Diego Wild Animal Park. Three strategically-timed anthelmintic treatments were given during 1988-1989, and their success was measured by monitoring faecal egg counts before and aft...
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A pig farm of 6000 weaning to market age pigs had a mortality rate of 2.8% in October 1989 and 1.9% in April 1990. Four pigs were examined PM. All pigs had pulmonary haemorrahage with patchy necrosis and fibrinous pleuritis which was seen, on histological examiantion, as severe haemorrhagic and necr...
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The 10-point Milk and Dairy Beef Quality Assurance Program was developed collaboratively by the National Milk Producers Federation and the American Veterinary Medical Association and is designed to promote and document the responsible use of antibiotics in the dairy industry. One area of emphasis in...
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Nine of ten 13-month-old Aberdeen Angus bulls, injected with 0.25 ml of a sclerosing agent (3.6% formaldehyde in 90% ethanol) in the caudae epididymes, developed epididymitis after nine days. Semen samples collected after 40 days contained numerous motile spermatozoa in one sample, and small numbers...
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Serological responses to A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 7 infection were monitored by ELISA in a cohort of 66 pigs between weaning and market. Antibody concentrations were high (63/65 seropositive) at 4 weeks of age but declined to low levels from 8 to 12 weeks. Mean antibody concn rose significantly b...
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The authors evaluated existing list frames for disease surveillance by a telephone survey of 50 producers in Tulare county. No single ideal list frame existed, but the list frame of the Statistical Reporting Service, which included only 54% of the surveyed herds and 86% of the breeding swine within ...
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Testing of composite fecal (environmental) samples from high traffic areas in dairy herds has been shown to be a cost-effective and sensitive method for classification of herd status for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). In the National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) Dair...
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The distribution, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention and control of Babesia gibsoni infections in dogs are reviewed. This disease affects wild and domestic canids in Asia, Africa, Europe, the Middle East and North America. Common clinical signs include anaemia, pyrexia, anorexia, l...
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Milk from 172 commercial cows with mild to moderate clinical mastitis was tested with 5 antibiotic residue detection assay systems. 100 cows were treated with 1 of 2 intramammary β-lactam antibiotics and the remaining 72 cows were treated with intramuscular oxytocin. Milk samples were collected pre...
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Microvascular permeability of the jejunum of clinically normal equids and microvascular permeability associated with 60 minutes of ischemia (25% baseline blood flow) and subsequent reperfusion were investigated. Eight adult horses were randomly allotted to 2 equal groups: normal and ischemic/reperfu...
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The National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) is an integrated national surveillance system which collects data on disease incidence and prevalence, mortality, frequency of management practices, and disease costs. Surveillance activities rely on collaboration with government agencies, univers...
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Effects of intraluminal distention (25 cm of H2O, 120 min) and subsequent decompression (60 min) on intramural vascular patterns of the small intestine was evaluated in 7 anaesthetized horses. Intraluminal distension (25 cm of H2O, 120 min) was created in 2 jejunal segments in each horse. Experiment...
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Intramural vascular patterns of the jejunum and colon were evaluated during ischaemic strangulation obstruction (ISO, 70 min) and subsequent reperfusion (60 min) in 7 adult anaesthetized horses. Microvasculature of experimental and control segments was described by comparison of results from microan...