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The sensitivity of the Colilert test for detection of different isolates of E. coli O157:H7 and other verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) serotypes from water was evaluated. E. coli isolates evaluated were of human, bovine, porcine or food origin. The sensitivity of the Colilert test was 92% overall ...
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The prevalence of equine adenovirus 1 (EAdV1) in the nasopharyngeal sections of healthy neonatal foals and horses was compared with that of hospitalized foals using an EAdV1-specific PCR assay. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NS) were obtained from 15 hospitalized foals, 12 apparently normal foals and their d...
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The coastal ecosystems of California are highly utilized by humans and animals, but the ecology of fecal bacteria at the land-sea interface is not well understood. This study evaluated the distribution of potentially pathogenic bacteria in invertebrates from linked marine, estuarine, and freshwater ...
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Records of 19 482 cows from 9 herds in the San Joaquin Valley of California, USA, were used to estimate culling rate in dairy herds. The cull rate derived from data on non-culled cows was estimated as the weighted slope of the cumulative proportion of cows remaining in a herd after first parturition...
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Sympatric bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, n = 31), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, n = 38), and domestic cattle (n = 26) in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California (USA) were sampled for the presence of Psoroptes spp. mites and for serological evidence of exposure to bluetongue virus (BT...
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Thirteen morphologic characters were evaluated on P. cuniculi to determine if measurements for these variables were influenced by the use of different fixatives and varying periods of fixation. Morphological structures composed primarily of chitin (outer opisthosomal setal lengths and right 3rd tars...
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A bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) population in New Mexico, USA, was sampled 4 times between 1989 and 1995, and 5 bluetongue virus (BTV) diagnostic tests (virus isolation (VI), PCR, serum neutralization (SN), agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID), and competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA)) evaluated. The c-ELISA, A...
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Jamestown Canyon (JC) and Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses are mosquito-transmitted viruses that have long been present in California. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of these two viruses in horses prior to the introduction of West Nile (WN) virus. Approximately...
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Equid herpesvirus-2 (EHV-2) infection is ubiquitous in horses. Although EHV-2 infection has been associated with several disease syndromes, its true pathogenic significance in horses remains uncertain. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), another gammaherpesvirus, has been shown to cause febrile illness in hum...
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The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is increasingly recognized as a waterborne pathogen. Infection can be acquired by drinking contaminated water and conventional water treatments may not effectively inactivate tough, environmentally resistant oocysts. The present study was performed to assess ...
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OBJECTIVE: To determine whether foals with pneumonia that were treated with erythromycin, alone or in combination with rifampin or gentamicin, had a higher risk of developing adverse effects, compared with foals treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMS), penicillin G procaine (PGP), or a comb...
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The effects of different control selection (sampling) techniques on odds ratio (OR) estimates for disease risk factors were analysed in a retrospective case-control study using patient records kept at the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, USA. 134 horses with Corynebacterium p...
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One hundred and ninety-one sera from horses that recently were exposed to West Nile virus (WNV) by either vaccination or natural infection or that were not vaccinated and remained free of infection were used to evaluate fluorescent microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) incorporating recombinant WNV envelo...
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Populations of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) may serve as an environmental reservoir of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia sp. cysts for source water. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of and associated demographic and environmental risk factors for the shedding of C...
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The financial impact of an outbreak of transmissible gastroenteritis in pigs which occurred in February 1986, was evaluated in a California sow herd (320 sows, 15 boars) through estimating the effects on growth, feed, and profit. Two groups of pigs were studied: pigs born before and surviving the ou...
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Ranch-reared mink (Mustela vison) were used as a model in an experimental trial to investigate the potential effects of exposure to two petroleum products on sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Mink were exposed either dermally on one occasion 60 days prior to breeding or via low level contamination of the...
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Milk from 172 commercial cows with mild to moderate clinical mastitis was tested with five antibiotic residue detection assay systems. One hundred cows were treated with one of two intramammary beta-lactam antibiotics, and the remaining 72 cows were treated with intramuscular oxytocin. Milk samples ...
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Factors associated with foot abscess were evaluated in a cohort of 3322 suckling pigs reared on a woven-wire floor (wire diameter, 0.5 cm; size of openings, 1 × 3.8 cm). In bivariate analysis, foot abscess was significantly associated with postpartum sow illness, number of pigs born alive, and pari...
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In studies involving 417 heifer calves born in the San Joaquin Valley between Jan. 1991 and Jan. 1992, determinations of packed cell volume (PCV), total proteins (TP), serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and birth weight were assessed as possible risk factors in neonatal diarrhoea. Positive associations we...
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Serologic testing for porcine parvovirus was used to illustrate the difficulties of interpreting results of an imperfect test performed on a sample from a herd. Herd seroprevalence and true prevalence levels were classified as low (< 40%), medium (40–79.9%) or high (≥ 80%). Results obtained from...
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Between July 1985 and April 1986, mycobacterial lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 6 of 2407 slaughter pigs from a herd in which most animals were raised in confinement. All 6 affected pigs had access to earth-floored pens at least 81 days before slaughter. Infection rate was 9.4% in pigs kept on earth ...
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Procaine penicillin G (PPG) disappearance curves were generated for cows given a single i.m. dose of PPG 6600 U/kg or 26 400 U/kg, or multiple doses of 26 400 U/kg using meta-analysis of the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank. These curves were entered into 1000 computer simulated cow models to ...
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Screening methods are needed for immediate field assessment of affected seabirds during oil spills. We compared the accuracies of 4 handheld blood glucose monitors - Accu-Chek Advantage, Glucometer Elite, Precision QID, and Sure Step - with that of Chemstrip bG for blood glucose determination in sea...
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Deaths in cattle fed sudax hay were attributed to nitrate poisoning. Seventy-three animals out of 157 cattle died after being fed the hay, and 11 of the surviving cows aborted in the next 6 days. Toxicological findings supported this diagnosis with samples of the sudax hay containing up to 3.1% nitr...