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The conduct of randomized controlled trials in livestock with production, health, and food-safety outcomes presents unique challenges that may not be adequately reported in trial reports. The objective of this project was to modify the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement t...
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Toxigenic type D P. multocida was first detected in New South Wales in 1986. A survey in 1987 indicated that 2% of herds with more than 20 sows were infected. In 44 randomly selected herds, examined between July 1988 and February 1989, the prevalence of infection was 4.5%. In all examined herds, the...
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To investigate the association between genital bacterial infection and urogenital carcinoma in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), vaginal and preputial swabs for bacterial isolation were taken from 148 free-ranging and 51 stranded California sea lions including 16 animals with urogenital...
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Correct classification of the true status of herds is an important component of epidemiologic studies and animal disease-control programs. We review theoretical aspects of herd-level testing through consideration of test performance (herd-level sensitivity, specificity and predictive values), the fa...
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Data were collected for 3636 full-term pigs born in a commercial swine herd to determine the effects of birth weight and clinical disease on survival during the first 3 weeks of life. Logistic regression models were constructed for 7-day survival for all live-born pigs, and for 21-day survival for p...
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To determine the identity of the tick vector of enzootic B. gibsoni in California, USA, 2 common ixodid ticks were allowed to engorge upon B. gibsoni-infected dogs. Sporozoites were observed in the salivary glands of prefed nymphs of R. sanguineus that fed as larvae on B. gibsoni-infected dogs. A hi...
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Estimates of the association between enzootic pneumonia (EP) and weight gain were obtained from multiple linear regression models using coughing episodes or slaughter checks as indicators of EP status in a prospective cohort study in a commercial pig herd. Models were estimated for pigs in 2 differe...
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A case-control study was conducted in the Mexicali Valley to identify risk factors for goat-herd seropositivity for Brucella melitensis. Nineteen case herds (≥2 positive results with the 8% rose bengal plate test (RBT)) and 55 control herds (zero positive results in RBT), matched for herd size and...
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Bison and elk in the greater Yellowstone area are the last-known reservoir of Brucella abortus in the United States. Diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging as there is no perfect reference test. The objectives of this study were to estimate the accuracy of the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) ...
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Records were reviewed of horses that had fatal injuries at California race tracks over a 16-month period. Horses were classified for injury type, sex, age and breed. Arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, molybdenum and zinc concentrations were measured in the liver and kidneys from each horse. Arsen...
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95 Thoroughbred racehorses that died between 1994 and 1996 examined through the California Horse Racing Board Postmortem Program were used in this investigation. 38 quantitative measures of hoof size, shape and balance were obtained from orthogonal digital images of the hoof and were compared betwee...
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Sera from 523 wild rodents were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using either an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (rats and mice, with titer 80 considered positive) or a latex agglutination test (LAT) (voles, squirrels, and pocket mice, with titer ≥32 considered positive). Seventee...
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In May 1996, 150 grower pigs in 5 California counties were given a selenium-contaminated feed distributed by a single feed company. Feed samples from 20 herds had a mean selenium concentration of 121.7 ppm dry weight (range, 22.1-531 ppm). In San Luis Obispo County, 52 pigs in 24 herds were exposed ...
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A serum indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was compared with a Western blot (WB) and a modified Western blot (mWB) for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the curve of the IFAT was greater than the area ...
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A kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using antigenic extracts prepared from P. cuniculi and sera from 37 Psoroptes sp.-infested and 43 uninfested bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). Serial dilutions of these serum samples, representing 3 bighorn sheep subspecies and 9 geogr...
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Objective - To assess the accuracy and reliability of a visual method of evaluating horseshoe characteristics. Animals - 1,199 Thoroughbred racehorses. Procedure - Characteristics of 1 forelimb horseshoe were visually assessed on horses immediately prior to racing by 5 field observers at 5 major rac...
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We present methods for binomial regression when the outcome is determined using the results of a single diagnostic test with imperfect sensitivity and specificity. We present our model, illustrate it with the analysis of real data, and provide an example of WinBUGS program code for performing such a...
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Transposition of diagnostic tests used in domestic livestock species to free-ranging and captive wildlife species has two problems. First, most existing tests have not been adequately validated in domestic livestock. Second, assumptions that a serological test will perform identically in wildlife an...
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Bluetongue is a vector-borne viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. The epidemiology of this disease has recently changed, with occurrence in new geographic areas. Various real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) assays are used to d...
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The causes, incidence and control of arthritis in swine are discussed. Abattoir condemnation of carcasses for arthritis caused major economic losses for producers in New South Wales. Of 1 117 818 pigs slaughtered in 1979-1980, 1979 (0.18%) were condemned for arthritis.
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A portable modified steel mesh panel trap was developed to reduce injuries that wild pigs (Sus scrofa) suffer when captured in simple square panel traps. Immobilization was done with a drug combination of Telazol® (zolazepam and tiletamine) and xylazine hydrochloride (HCl) injected with blow darts....
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Factors associated with umbilical hernias were evaluated in a 320-sow, farrow-to-finish herd. Health, production, and treatment records for a cohort of 2958 pigs were used to determine whether umbilical infection and sire of the pig increased the risk of herniation. Although herniation was infrequen...
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Over a 2-yr study period, we investigated possible endogenous transplacental transmission of Neospora hughesi in 74 mare and foal pairs following the diagnosis of neuronal neosporosis in a weanling foal. Presuckle and postsuckle serum of each foal, serum and colostrum of each periparturient mare, an...
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A serosurvey of antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV), and Ehrlichia canis in African (Lycanon pictus) and sympatric domestic canids was conducted in the Maasai Mara, Kenya, in 1989 and 1990. Samples were collected from about 20% of the sympatric and wild dog population...