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This study was conducted to determine whether targeted anthelmintic treatment of peri-parturient ewes lambing in the winter, spring and/or autumn would suppress the peri-parturient egg rise (PPER) and improve 50-day lamb weights. Three farms in Ontario, Canada, that practiced out-of-season lambing w...
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Animal studies and epidemiological evidence suggest an association between prenatal exposure to drinking water with elevated nitrate (NO3-N) concentrations and incidence of congenital anomalies. This study used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to derive individual-level prenatal drinking-water n...
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Background

Anthelmintic drugs have been widely used in sheep as a cost-effective means for gastro-intestinal nematode (GIN) control. However, growing anthelmintic resistance (AHR) has created a compelling need to identify evidence-based management recommendations that reduce the risk of further ...

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A study was conducted in sheep on Canadian farms to describe the relationship between packed cell volume (PCV) or fecal egg counts (FEC) and subjective clinical parameters that may indicate the severity of parasitic gastroenteritis. Twenty-one farms in Ontario (ON) and 8 farms in Quebec (QC) were pu...
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This study investigated the overwintering survival and infectivity of free-living gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) stages on pasture. The presence of GIN larvae was assessed on 3 sheep farms in Ontario with a reported history of clinical haemonchosis, by collecting monthly pasture samples over the wi...
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To describe parasite control and farm management practices commonly used by Ontario sheep farmers, and to determine whether any of these practices were associated with the level of anthelmintic resistance (AR) to ivermectin, fenbendazole or levamisole, we conducted fecal egg count reduction (FECR) t...
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The epidemiology of the periparturient egg rise (PPER) of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in sheep remains unclear, and may be influenced by the lambing season. This longitudinal study was performed to determine the effect of out-of-season lambing on the PPER in ewes in Ontario, and whether total ...
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Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a significant constraint to pasture-based sheep production worldwide. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) has been reported in most sheep-raising areas in the world, yet little is known about the AR status in Canada. This study was conducted to determine the frequency o...
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The study purpose was to validate PetrifilmsTM (3M Microbiology, 2005) against standard culture methods in the diagnosis of bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya. On 128 smallholder dairy cattle farms in Kenya, between June 21, 2010 and August 31, 2010, milk samples from 269 cows that were positive on ...
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Women living on rural Kenyan dairy farms spend significant amounts of time collecting wood for cooking. Biogas digesters, which generate biogas for cooking from the anaerobic decomposition of livestock manure, are an alternative fuel source. The objective of this study was to quantify the quality of...
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The objectives of this thesis were: 1) to determine which factors and biological samples were associated with the estimated amount of total arsenic (As) consumed from water and food; 2) to determine which factors were associated with the concentration of total and speciated As ([As]) in urine; 3) to...
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Kenyan community leaders called for strengthened sustainable livelihoods for farmers and in 1992 formed a self-help dairy group that was reorganized in 2009 to form the Wakulima Dairy Ltd. (WDL). At WDL, members sell surplus milk to the dairy and, through nongovernmental organization (NGO) partnersh...
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Selected alternative treatments for preventing or controlling gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in sheep under field conditions were evaluated using a systematic review-meta-analysis methodology. Forty-three publications reporting 51 studies (21 controlled studies (CS) and 30 challenge studies (ChS))...
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Biomass burning in indoor environments has been highlighted as a major cause of respiratory morbidity for women and children in low-income countries. Inexpensive technological innovations which reduce such exposures are needed. This study evaluated the impact of low tech compost digesters, which gen...
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We aimed to describe the management and productivity of this group of smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya at the beginning of an intervention program and to document relevant observed changes in the 3rd year of the intervention. A 3-year intervention program, focused on management of animal health an...
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Scientific certainty regarding environmental toxin-related etiologies of breast cancer, particularly among women with genetic polymorphisms in estrogen metabolizing enzymes, is lacking. Fungicides have been recognized for their carcinogenic potential, yet there is a paucity of epidemiological studie...
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Using a randomized controlled trial design, a randomly allocated intervention group of 15 cows received a slow-release bolus that delivered 100 days of monensin. The negative control group of 15 cows received a placebo bolus that was identical to the monensin bolus, except without the monensin. Two ...
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Our objective was to investigate effects of seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), Type 1 bovine viral-diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), and Neospora caninum (NC), and their possible interactions, on reproductive efficiency (specifically, first-se...
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With increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance worldwide and a growing demand to produce more organic products, utilisation of control strategies for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) that minimize the use of anthelmintics becomes even more important. This study evaluated the farm-level performanc...
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Objective: To determine the relationship between the risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and daily intake of drinking water and dietary components, including nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines, during the year prior to diagnosis. Methods: Controls (n=105) were matched by age at diagnosis and sex to T1D ca...
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Over the last several decades, elders and hunters of the Innu Nation in Labrador, Canada, have expressed concerns over perceived declines in environmental health and the integrity of country food, including caribou. The primary objective of this study was to determine links between specific health p...
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Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with the seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in a large number of randomly selected Canadian dairy herds, controlling for important confounding variables and co-infections with bovine leukemia virus (BLV),...
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Our study objective was to determine the ability of milk urea-nitrogen concentrations ([MUN]) to predict fecal nitrogen concentrations ([Fecal N]) in commercial dairy herds. A total of 83 dairy herds were each visited 3 times within 48 h after a monthly herd milk test. For each farm visit, forages w...