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Animal studies and epidemiological evidence suggest an association between prenatal exposure to drinking water with elevated nitrate (NO3-N) concentrations and incidence of congenital anomalies. This study used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to derive individual-level prenatal drinking-water n...
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The epidemiology of the periparturient egg rise (PPER) of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in sheep remains unclear, and may be influenced by the lambing season. This longitudinal study was performed to determine the effect of out-of-season lambing on the PPER in ewes in Ontario, and whether total ...
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Neospora caninum is one of the most important causes of abortion in cows. The occurrence of N. caninum infection in beef and dairy cattle has been reported worldwide, and in most provinces in Canada. The objective of this review is to summarize our current understanding of N. caninum in dairy and be...
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Survey responses from 75 randomly selected dairy producers on Prince Edward Island were summarized to obtain a demographic picture of the dairy industry in this province and to determine information management practices and demands for the future. The results indicate a preparedness for dairy produc...
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To describe parasite control and farm management practices commonly used by Ontario sheep farmers, and to determine whether any of these practices were associated with the level of anthelmintic resistance (AR) to ivermectin, fenbendazole or levamisole, we conducted fecal egg count reduction (FECR) t...
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Selected alternative treatments for preventing or controlling gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in sheep under field conditions were evaluated using a systematic review-meta-analysis methodology. Forty-three publications reporting 51 studies (21 controlled studies (CS) and 30 challenge studies (ChS))...
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Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a significant constraint to pasture-based sheep production worldwide. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) has been reported in most sheep-raising areas in the world, yet little is known about the AR status in Canada. This study was conducted to determine the frequency o...
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38 bovine mammary Staphylococcus aureus isolates from diverse clinical, temporal and geographical origins were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after SmaI digestion of prokaryotic DNA and by means of binary typing using 15 strain-specific DNA probes. Seven pulsed-field types and ...
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The objectives of this thesis were: 1) to determine which factors and biological samples were associated with the estimated amount of total arsenic (As) consumed from water and food; 2) to determine which factors were associated with the concentration of total and speciated As ([As]) in urine; 3) to...
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Kenyan community leaders called for strengthened sustainable livelihoods for farmers and in 1992 formed a self-help dairy group that was reorganized in 2009 to form the Wakulima Dairy Ltd. (WDL). At WDL, members sell surplus milk to the dairy and, through nongovernmental organization (NGO) partnersh...
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Our objective was to investigate effects of seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), Type 1 bovine viral-diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), and Neospora caninum (NC), and their possible interactions, on reproductive efficiency (specifically, first-se...
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BACKGROUND: Nitrate and atrazine are two chemicals that are heavily used in certain sectors of agriculture. They are suspected to be associated with the development of certain types of tumours. METHODS: Existing data were obtained on the incidence of specific types of cancers, contamination of drink...
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Scientific certainty regarding environmental toxin-related etiologies of breast cancer, particularly among women with genetic polymorphisms in estrogen metabolizing enzymes, is lacking. Fungicides have been recognized for their carcinogenic potential, yet there is a paucity of epidemiological studie...
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The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine if bulk tank milk urea nitrogen (BTMUN) and whole herd weighted average of the individual cow MUN levels (WHMUN) were equivalent measurements of herd MUN status; and 2) to determine the seasonal variation in BTMUN concentrations in Prince Edward Isl...
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A clinical trial was conducted to determine the perceived and actual utility of milk urea nitrogen (MUN) notification and interpretation as a tool for monitoring protein and energy imbalances in dairy cows. Based on MUN results during the summer of 2001, 50 farms with high MUN values and 30 with low...