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Four strains of staphylococci of different phage patterns (two principal and two minor phage types) associated with naturally occurring tenosynovitis were studied for virulence in chickens and tropism for tendon tissue. There were significant differences in virulence between the principal and minor ...
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The phage typing and cultural characteristics of 574 strains of S. aureus of poultry origin in Australia were examined. With the avian phage set of Shimizu (1979) it was possible to type 74.2% of strains. A number of significant variations in the phage typing patterns of Australian strains compared ...
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The effect of breed of chicken on infection with an arthrotropic avian reovirus (strain R2) was studied by oral or footpad inoculation of day-old chicks of the SPF light-hybrid, commercial White Leghorn egg-layer, and commercial Ross I broiler breeds, observed to 12 weeks of age. Although most inocu...
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The lesions and etiologic agents associated with 13 outbreaks of respiratory disease in commercial chickens were investigated. Adenoviruses were isolated from tracheal and lung tissues of affected chickens in all 13 outbreaks. Escherichia coli was isolated from the lung of an occasional bird. The tr...
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The prevalence of reoviruses in commercial chickens with the runting/stunting syndrome, tenosynovitis, and normal chickens was investigated. Reoviruses were isolated from 3-week-old chickens affected with the runting/stunting syndrome and from older chickens with tenosynovitis; viruses were isolated...
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An optimal in situ hybridization protocol is described for the detection of gene expression of a structural protein unique to lampreys, lamprin, in the cartilages of prolarval, metamorphic and adult sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. A 156 bp antisense RNA probe labeled with (35)S-UTP was transcribed ...
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A novel in-vivo assay system for mapping and analyzing regulatory signals which promote transcription and expression of viral RNA genomes is described. The system was developed using infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a double-stranded RNA virus and Vero cells which are permissive for IBDV, as ...
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Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds was initiated in Canada in 2005. In 2006, in order to maximize detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, the sampling protocol used in Canada's Inter-agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey was changed. Instead of collecting a singl...
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As nonenveloped viruses, the aquareoviruses and orthoreoviruses are unusual in their ability to induce cell-cell fusion and syncytium formation. While an extraordinary family of fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins is responsible for orthoreovirus syncytiogenesis, the basis for aqua...
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Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of serotype II IBDV (OH and MO strains) purified from infected Vero cells resolved a previously undetected major viral polypeptide, VP2. The molecular weight (MW) of VP2 was different between the two strains of serotype II. It was 43.5 kDa in strain OH and 4...
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The nucleotide sequence of genome segment A cDNA of the STC strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was determined and compared with sequences of the homologous genome segment of the 002-73 strain of IBDV and the Jasper strain of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). The STC-IBDV gen...
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Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is a marine orthomyxovirus of significant interest not only as a cause of a fatal disease of farmed Atlantic salmon resulting in severe economic losses to the aquaculture industry, but also as the only poikilothermic orthomyxovirus. ISAV targets vascular endoth...
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Routine laboratory diagnosis of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) infection is primarily by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) because of the high sensitivity and rapid turnaround time of the test. This paper describes methods for highly reproducible absolute viral load me...
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Non-typhoid Salmonella serovars remain a potential threat to human health, and beef cattle and broiler chickens are possible sources of these organisms on Prince Edward Island (PEI). In this study, the ceca of beef cattle belonging to fasted and non-fasted groups, and broiler chickens were examined ...
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A specific DNA probe for the identification of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), was developed from one of 3 clones pRS47, pRS49, and pRS26 of 5.1 kb, 5.3 kb, and 11.3 kb, respectively. The biotinylated pRS47/BamHI insert probe was tested on 3 dilutio...
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Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is currently one of the most important viral pathogens threatening commercial aquaculture in the northern hemisphere. The virus is classified in the family Orthomyxoviridae, genus Isavirus. The virus offers a significant challenge to fish biologists inter...
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Fourteen laboratories validated their procedure for detection of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in fish tissues using TaqMan® real-time RT-PCR targeting ISAV RNA segment 8. The participants included 12 laboratories from South America, one from Asia and one from Europe. The OIE Reference Lab...
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Groups of SPF chicks which had been immunosuppressed either by surgical thymectomy (Tx) or surgical bursectomy (Bx) or cyclophosphamide (Cy) treatment or Tx plus Cy treatment (Tx + Cy), as well as untreated birds, were inoculated with arthrotropic avian reovirus at 1 day of age and observed for up t...
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The baculovirus expression vector system was used to examine the expression of the full-length infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) segment A cDNA, which encodes the structural proteins in a polyprotein precursor that is autocatalytically cleaved to VPX, VP3, and VP4. No VP2 was observed in lysate...