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The application of genetic modification offers considerable opportunities for more efficient and more effective fish aquaculture. Susceptibility to infectious diseases and limitations in growth rates could be successfully tackled by the application of transgenic technology. Acceptance of transgenic ...
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The genome of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) of serotype 2 (strain OH) has been cloned, and 3171 nucleotides of genome segment A cDNA sequence have been determined for the first time. Sequence homology of OH-IBDV with the most distant serotype 1 IBDV at the nucleotide level is 83.1%, and the...
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The regions of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) genome with regulatory function are not known. In the present study, progressively deleted lengths of the 5' noncoding region of segment A were constructed in pGL3 vectors having SV40 enhancer or promoter, and a luciferase (LUC) reporter gene...
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Infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV 1) occurs worldwide and causes serious economic losses due to loss of animals, abortions, decreased milk production, and loss of body weight. There is a real need for sensitive diagnostic procedures for detection of the presence of virus in order to achieve e...
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A total of 20 hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against E. coli expressed bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) gD fusion protein were produced following the fusion of Sp2/0 myeloma cells with splenocytes from BALB/c mice immunized previously with immunoaffinity purified BHV-1 gD fu...
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In situ hybridization (ISH) was used to investigate the presence of viral mRNA in different fractions of blood cells of Atlantic salmon between 6 and 12 d following experimental infection with infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV). Using a riboprobe targeting ISAV segment 7 mRNA, hybridization signa...
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A one-tube real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using LightCycler technology and SYBR Green chemistry that quantitatively detects infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in biological samples is described. The assay utilized primers targeting ISAV RNA segment 8, with ISA...
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A molecular clone representing 445 base pairs at the 3' end of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) genome segment B was used in a dot blot hybridization assay to detect viral RNA from cell culture and from chicken bursa and spleen tissue specimens. The cloned nucleotide sequence represents approx...
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Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is classified in the genus Isavirus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. Although virulence variation of ISAV can be demonstrated experimentally in fish, virus strain identification is ambiguous because the correlates of pathogenicity and/or antigenicity of ISAV are ...
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Previous analysis of the two serotypes of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) have demonstrated the correlation between antigenicity and similarities of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the VP2 coding region in genome segment A. Restriction fragment profiles of genomic segment A cDNA of fiv...
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Virus protein VP4 of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a protease which separates VPX and VP3 from the polyprotein. We studied the importance of serine and aspartic acid on cleavage at the VPX/VP4 junction and analysed the role of the proposed H547, D590, and S653 catalytic site using five d...
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The VP1 encoded by genomic segment B of birnaviruses is generally known to exist as a genome-linked protein (VPg) and as a 'free' polypeptide of 90 kDa in virus particles. The guanylylation activity associated with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was demonstrated by incubating purified virus ...
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Two methods for denaturing double stranded (ds)RNA of infectious bursal disease virus for the purpose of reverse transcribing it were compared: Heat denaturation at 65 degrees C in the presence of DMSO and in the absence of DMSO. As part of the analysis, the nature of cDNA in the two preparations wa...
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Two nonoverlapping clones, pOH405 and pOH632, containing cDNA inserts in the VP2 coding region of genome segment A were selected from a cDNA library prepared from the double-stranded RNA genome of the OH strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) of serotype 2. Clone pOH405, which is located i...
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Twenty-six samples known to contain infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were examined by virus-isolation attempts on ovine kidney (OK) cell line, Vero cell line, and chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cultures. Virus was isolated from two of 26 samples, three of 26 samples, and three of 25 samples o...
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The larger genome segment, segment A, of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) encodes VP2, VP3 and VP4 as a precursor polyprotein. The viral protease, VP4, is responsible for self-processing of the polyprotein, however, there are additional secondary precursor products such as VPX whose further pr...
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Because of the multiple-step process that is involved in the detection of mutagenized restriction enzyme sites in plasmid DNA, a simple and accurate method was developed to analyse the plasmid DNA of site-directed mutagenesis experiments from bacterial colonies. The desired mutated part is located b...
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Two avian reoviruses, strain Reo-25 and isolate W3-492 were given by mouth to eight one-day-old chicks. 3-7 days after inoculation, the liver, spleen, pancreas, caecal tonsil and duodenum were collected, weighed and titrated in cell culture for viral content. Tissue homogenates were passaged several...
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The current understanding on the pathogenesis and the mechanism of persistence of ISAV in fish is limited. Three permissive fish cell lines SHK-1, CHSE-214 and TO were used to determine if the cytopathic effect (CPE) observed in ISAV isolate NBISA01 and U5575-1 infection is due to apoptosis or necro...
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The growth of five strains of infectious bursal disease virus--three strains of serotype I (SAL, D-78, 2512), one of serotype II (OH), and one variant strain (Variant-A)--were compared in Vero and chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell cultures in order to characterize the replication of different str...
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Four avian reoviruses were orally inoculated into 1-day-old chickens to determine pathogenicity, virus persistence in the intestinal tract, and effects on body weight gains. Avian reoviruses Reo-25 and W3-492 belonged to two separate serotypes, and viruses TC 897 and W3-410 were antigenically relate...