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The growth of five strains of infectious bursal disease virus--three strains of serotype I (SAL, D-78, 2512), one of serotype II (OH), and one variant strain (Variant-A)--were compared in Vero and chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell cultures in order to characterize the replication of different str...
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Four avian reoviruses were orally inoculated into 1-day-old chickens to determine pathogenicity, virus persistence in the intestinal tract, and effects on body weight gains. Avian reoviruses Reo-25 and W3-492 belonged to two separate serotypes, and viruses TC 897 and W3-410 were antigenically relate...
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Terminal sequences of the bi-segmented dsRNA genome of 3 different strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were analyzed by the rapid amplification of cDNA 5' ends (5'RACE) procedure. Both segments are 85% homologous in a 32-nucleotide sequence comprising the 5' end, whereas the 3' end has...
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In 1983, twenty-two outbreaks of viral arthritis/tenosynovitis were diagnosed in a 6-month period on 18 fryer farms of one commercial operation located in western Washington. The main source of the reovirus infection was traced to a breeder flock that supplied progeny chicks to all of the affected f...
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The nature of the viraemia and the tissue distribution of reovirus were studied in the early phase after oral infection of 1-day-old SPF, White Leghorn chicks with the R2 strain of avian reovirus. A range of tissues collected up to 3 weeks after infection was titrated for viral content. Virus was pr...
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Several outbreaks of clinical tenosynovitis in poultry were investigated. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from tendon tissue of from 52.98% of affected chickens in different outbreaks. It was also present in the liver and heart blood, and seemed to contribute to the high mortality observed follo...
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Eleven of thirteen infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDV) were shown to be similar following polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of two regions (293 bp and 651 bp cDNA fragments) in genomic segment B and restriction enzyme analysis of the PCR products. Two IBDV strains differed from the ...
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A comparison of the serological responses to a reovirus administered by the eye-drop, intramuscular, oral and subcutaneous routes was made in three-week-old chickens. Their patterns of virus shedding were also compared. All four routes resulted in an antibody response and no virus excretion in faece...
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Lysogeny was readily demonstrated among strains of Staphylococcus hyicus that were isolated from chickens. Susceptibility to phage lysis was affected by prophage immunity, but lipase activity and erythromycin resistance were not affected by the presence of temperate phage. In contrast to previously ...
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Bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus from different outbreaks of tenosynovitis in broiler breeder replacement chickens showed that, although a mixture of phage types was present on affected farms, there was a predominant phage type isolated from lesions of affected chickens. The predominant...
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BACKGROUND: Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a pathogen of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar); a disease first diagnosed in Norway in 1984. For over 25 years ISAV has caused major disease outbreaks in the Northern hemisphere, and remains an emerging fish pathogen because of t...
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BACKGROUND: Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a pathogen of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar); a disease first diagnosed in Norway in 1984. This virus, which was first characterized following its isolation in cell culture in 1995, belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae, genus,...
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Mast cells are crucial effector cells in host defense and immunoregulation. They are equipped with an impressive array of receptor systems which allows them to rapidly respond to pathogen-associated signals. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate mast cell activation and mediator release in res...
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Reverse transcription-real time polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR) assay with Universal Probe Library (UPL) probes has been developed for the detection and genotyping of Chilean infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) isolates from infected cell culture. Partial nucleotide sequences (1...
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In the present study the pathogenesis of experimental infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) infection in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1972) and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar was compared. The virus infection in the 2 species demonstrated different mortality patterns and pathology chara...
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A genomic library of Sarcocystis cruzi sporozoite DNA was constructed in bacteriophage lambda gt10. Recombinant phages containing insert DNA were selected by growth on Escherichia coli strain C600 hflA150. Of 14 clones examined, 11 contained DNA inserts ranging in size from approximately 1.45 kiloba...
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Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a fish orthomyxovirus that has recently been assigned to the new genus Isavirus within the family Orthomyxoviridae. It possesses the major functional characteristics of the virus family including haemagglutinating, receptor destroying enzyme (RDE), and...
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Of 4,268 wild ducks sampled in Canada in 2005, real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR detected influenza A matrix protein (M1) gene sequence in 37% and H5 gene sequence in 5%. Mallards accounted for 61% of samples, 73% of M1-positive ducks, and 90% of H5-positive ducks. Ducks hatched in 2005 accounted ...
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Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), an orthomyxovirus-like virus, is an important fish pathogen in marine aquaculture. Virus neutralization of 24 ISAV isolates in the TO cell line using rabbit antisera to the whole virus and comparative sequence analysis of their haemagglutinin (HA) genes have a...
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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) was developed and optimized using 22 bp sense and 20 bp antisense primers in the thymidine kinase (TK) coding region. The amplification product is 183 bp long. The PCR optimization was done using BHV-1 tissue culture super...
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The ability of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotypes 1 and 2, and the role of VP4 of both serotypes as well as the capacity of three IBDV intermediate serotype 1-specific vaccine strains to induce apoptosis in a chicken B-lymphocyte cell line, DT40, were investigated using the TUNEL techn...
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Small multifocal lesions of proliferative pododermatitis were observed in an emaciated adult male northern gannet (Morus bassanus). Ultrastructurally, these lesions were associated with numerous virus-like particles with a size and morphology suggestive of Papovaviridae. DNA in situ hybridization wi...
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Infection with bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) occurs worldwide and causes serious economic losses due to the deaths of animals, abortions, decreased milk production, and loss of body weight. BHV-1 is frequently found in bovine semen and is transmitted through natural service and artificial insemi...