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The sedative effects of i.m. administration of a low dose of romifidine were evaluated in 13 healthy adult Beagles. Physiological saline solution (0.2 ml), 0.1% romifidine (10, 20, or 40 micro g/kg) or 10% xylazine (1 mg/kg) was given i.m. in a crossover study design. Heart rate, respiratory rate, r...
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The arrhythmogenic effects of anaesthetic drugs were assessed using the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ADE) model. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of cholinergic blockade (CB) produced by glycopyrrolate (G) on ADE in 1.5 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) halothane (H...
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Twenty 3-mmol boluses of LiCl (0.15 mmol/l) were injected IV into healthy Standardbred horses (n=6) at 3-min intervals (60 mmol/horse total dose) during a 1-h period. Blood samples for measurement of serum lithium concentrations were collected before injection and up to 24 h after injection. Behavio...
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Local anesthetic techniques have the unique ability to block peripheral nociceptive input associated with surgical trauma and inflammation and to prevent sensitization of central nociceptive pathways and the development of pathologic pain. Complete neural blockade of the canine brachial plexus is di...
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Managing perioperative pain effectively is one the most important tasks that clinical veterinarians perform on a daily basis. The purpose of this article is to provide veterinarians with a basic understanding of the pathophysiology of perioperative pain and a working knowledge of the principles of e...
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Many perioperative pain management protocols for cats and dogs are overly complex, some are ineffective, and still others expose patients to unnecessary risk. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with a basic understanding of the pathophysiology of perioperative pain and a working kn...
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In a series of trials at least 3 days apart, dogs (12.5 to 21.5 kg) were assigned at random to each of 6 groups: halothane-saline (HS), halothane-xylazine (HX), halothane-medetomidine (HM) and the corresponding groups with glycopyrrolate (HGS, HGX, HGM). Dogs were anaesthetized with halothane (1.31%...
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The aim of this study was to determine the electrocardiographic and cardiopulmonary effects of IM administration of romifidine with and without prior administration of glycopyrrolate in conscious dogs. Twelve healthy, adult beagles. Materials and methods Dogs were assigned at random to each of three...
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Alpha-2 agonists are the only single class of anaesthetic drugs that induce reliable, dose-dependent sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxation in dogs and cats. Used at low doses as adjuncts to injectable and inhaled anaesthetics, selective alpha-2 agonists dramatically reduce the amount of the anae...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the haemodynamic changes caused by the administration of i.v. atropine or glycopyrrolate after i.v. xylazine in isoflurane-anaesthetized dogs. Six healthy Beagles (8.2 to 10.7 kg) were used in 2 trials separated by 7 days. Anaesthesia was induced...
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In a series of trials at least 3 days apart, 8 dogs (body weight, 12.5 to 21.5 kg) were assigned at random to each of 3 treatment groups not given glycopyrrolate (isoflurane-saline, IS; isoflurane-xylazine, IX; isoflurane-medetomidine, IM) that were not given glycopyrrolate and to each of 3 groups t...
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Six dogs were randomly assigned to each of 6 reversal treatment groups. At least 7 days were allowed to elapse between experiments in the same dog. In each experiment, oxymorphone (0.22 mg/kg of body weight, i.v.) and diazepam (0.22 mg/kg, i.v.) were given sequentially 15 min after glycopyrrolate (0...
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Background and Purpose: Studying the effects of toxic and infective compounds on the respiratory system requires a reliable method for delivering inoculum into the distal region of the lung. Although transoral intratracheal inoculation methods have been well documented for adult rats, to the authors...
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OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of i.v. medetomidine administration on selected clinicopathologic variables in dogs. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURE: Dogs were randomly assigned to each of 3 treatments in a crossover study design. Serum osmolality, urine osmolality, urine pH, and fractio...
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A random sample of 652 Canadian veterinarians was surveyed to determine perioperative use of analgesics in dogs and cats following common surgeries. The response rate was 57.8%. With the exception of taildocking in puppies, at least 85% of animals received preincisional analgesics, and 30% to 98.1% ...
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OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of preoperative administration of ketoprofen on whole blood platelet aggregation, buccal mucosal bleeding time, and hematologic indices in dogs after elective ovariohysterectomy. DESIGN: Randomized, masked clinical trial. ANIMALS: 22 healthy dogs. PROCEDURE: 60 minute...
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Anecdotal evidence suggests that many veterinarians may not use analgesics in livestock for routine surgical procedures or painful disease states. To investigate this, we conducted a national mail survey of a random sample of 1431 Canadian veterinarians (response rate, 50.1%). Questions primarily co...
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The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of meloxicam when given by intra-articular (IA) and subcutaneous (SC) routes of administration for postoperative analgesia versus a placebo for dogs undergoing stifle surgery. Twenty-five dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) were ...
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OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of preoperative administration of ketoprofen on anesthetic requirements and signs of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled clinical trial. ANIMALS: 22 clinically normal client-owned dogs. PROCEDURE: 60 mi...
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OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of medetomidine, administered i.v., on serum insulin and plasma glucose concentrations in clinically normal dogs. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURE: Dogs were randomly assigned to each of 3 treatments in a prospective cross-over study design. Serum insul...
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Local anesthetics have the unique ability to produce complete blockade of sensory nerve fibers and prevent or pre-empt the development of secondary (central) sensitization to pain. For this reason, local and regional anesthetic techniques are often used with opioids, alpha 2-receptor agonists, disso...
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Factors affecting the postincisional use of analgesics for ovariohysterectomy (OVH) in dogs and cats were assessed by using data collected from 280 Canadian veterinarians, as part of a national, randomized mail survey (response rate 57.8%). Predictors of analgesic usage identified by logistic regres...
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OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of xylazine bolus versus medetomidine constant rate infusion (MCRI) on cardiopulmonary function and depth of anesthesia in dorsally recumbent, spontaneously breathing, isoflurane-anesthetized horses. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized crossover study. ANIMALS: 10 he...
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OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of xylazine bolus versus medetomidine constant rate infusion (MCRI) on serum cortisol and glucose concentrations, urine production, and anesthetic recovery characteristics in dorsally recumbent, spontaneously breathing, isoflurane-anesthetized horses. DESIGN: Prosp...
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There have been suggestions that analgesics be used by fish researchers. But in the absence of dose-response data for morphine, this suggestion seems imprudent. The purpose of the present study was to develop a dose-response relationship in fish using six doses of morphine. The response (movement of...