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Behavioural observations and physiological measurements were made on weaned lambs (35 kg) before, during and either after stationary confinement or transport for 12 h at 4 space allowances (0.22, 0.27, 0.31 and 0.41 m²/sheep). Two groups were not loaded (a control group with access to food anf wate...
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Suffolk × Greyface lambs, 16 weeks of age, weighing 30-40 kg, were transported by road, confined on a stationary vehicle or received no treatment (controls). The effects of 24 h continuous transport or confinement were compared with those of 12 h treatment followed by 12 h lairage, 3 h lairage or 3...
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This study quantified potentially traumatic events during handling (350 groups; n=3296), and the effect of source and sex class on the occurrence of carcass bruising of cattle (339 groups; n=3270) at 2 commercial slaughterhouses. A mean of 0.13 and 0.97 potentially traumatic events per animal occurr...
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The bruising of sheep carcases results in economic losses to the meat industry and is one indicator of welfare problems before slaughter. In this study the numbers of potentially bruising events and the transport conditions of sheep taken directly from farms to a slaughter house were related to the ...
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The resting behaviour of 64 groups of sheep was observed in the lairages of 2 slaughterhouses after transport for about 4 hours in a commercial livestock transporter. The sheep were watched at 5 minute intervals for the initial 3 hours in the lairage pen. The median percentage of time spent lying pe...
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This experiment describes the implications of red deer being kept in pens in close proximity to other species as may occur during abattoir lairage. 20 groups of 5 male yearling red deer were used to study behavioural and physiological responses over a 2-h period to 1 of 5 treatments: red deer penned...
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The pre-slaughter handling, behaviour and blood composition of beef cattle at slaughter was studied in a commercial slaughterhouse. The main problems identified were the routine use of driving instruments and delays caused by stoppages in the slaughter line. The plasma concentration of cortisol at t...
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Most sheep sent for slaughter in the United Kingdom are sold through livestock markets. This study counted the potentially bruising events at 2 markets handling 12 119 sheep from 549 groups and recorded the bruises on carcases of sheep from these markets. There were 1324 and 744 potentially bruising...
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The effects of space allowance during transportation and duration of a mid-journey lairage period on measurements of stress, injury, dehydration, food restriction and rest in young calves were assessed during and after transport. Groups of calves were transported for two 9-h journeys (at a space all...
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Twelve Friesian calves with abomasal cannulae were kept in a controlled environment chamber and given a milk substitute in buckets at 12-h intervals. Calves were exposed to air temperatures of 25°C from 4 to 10 days old, 5° from 11 to 14 days old, and 25° at 15 days old. At 9, 10, 11, 14 and 15 d...
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The welfare of animals in transit may be affected by driving events, such as acceleration, braking and cornering. The relationships between driving events and the behavioural responses of the animals were examined. A single-deck, non-articulated vehicle was with a video-recording system, GPS and tri...
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Two groups of 5 sheep (7 months of age) were moved and isolated in pens which did not allow visual and tactile contact with other sheep for 24 h. They were then moved back to their original pens where visual and tactile contact was possible. After 24 h the procedure was repeated 7 times for one grou...
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An operant crate and a push-door were used to measure feeding motivation in Suffolk sheep (2-4 years of age) after 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h without feed. In experiment 1 (n=12), sheep had to push a panel with their noses to obtain a feed reward. In experiment 2 (n=14), sheep had to run a race and push ...
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This article describes the teaching of animal handling at the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, as part of an animal husbandry course during the first two years of the veterinary curriculum. Basic methods of handling and restraint appropriate for the wide range of a...
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Methods for culling wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) were compared by observing behaviour and collecting post mortem samples from wild deer shot: (i) by a single stalker during daytime; (ii) by more than one stalker during daytime; (iii) by using a helicopter for the deployment of stalkers and carcase...
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Questionnaires on methods of euthanasia used in Canadian animal shelters were sent to 196 Canadian animal shelters yielding 67 responses. Sodium pentobarbital injection was the only method of euthanasia used by 61% establishments that euthanized dogs and 53% of the establishments that euthanized cat...