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Moritella viscosa is the causative agent of winter ulcer disease in salmonids reared in North-Atlantic countries. In this study the effects of selected M. viscosa antigens on cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory gene expression in an Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus) macrophage-like cell line (SHK...
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The effect of reduced feed ration on infestation levels with the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis and gene expression in juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha was tested in three laboratory trials. Body weight was significantly lower among fish on the reduced ration for 27, 34, or 65 d than f...
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Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes serious disease outbreaks in both wild and farmed salmonids. As the relationship between L. salmonis and its hosts is not well understood, the current investigation was undertaken to investigate whether any immunomodulatory compounds co...
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Striped bass Morone saxatilis were studied in order to characterize their immune responses over the short term following challenge with Mycobacterium marinum. The expression of immunity-related genes (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, Nramp and TGF-beta) quickly increased following infection with M. marinum, but...
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Mycobacterium shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are recently described mycobacteria commonly isolated from Chesapeake Bay striped bass Morone saxatilis. However, their distribution in striped bass outside of the Chesapeake region and their ability to infect alternative hosts have not been described. My...
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Deletion mutants of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida were used to determine the effect of the type three secretion system (TTSS) on Atlantic salmon anterior head kidney leucocytes (AHKL). One strain had a deletion in the outer membrane pore gene, ascC; and the other in three effector genes: ...
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The cell envelope of Aeromonas salmonicida contains a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) essential for the physical integrity and functioning of bacterial cell membrane. Using a recently developed in-source fragmentation technique, we screened 39 typical and atypical isolates of A. salmonicida and established...
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Laboratory-reared pink and chum salmon juveniles (∼2g) received an intraperitoneal injection with a commercial, unadjuvanted Aeromonas salmonicida bacterin or sterile saline. Relative to elongation factor-1A, expression levels of genes encoding the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β-1 (IL-1...
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‘Sea lice’ is a common name for a large number of species of marine ectoparasitic copepods, many of which are widespread and important disease-causing agents that infect both cultured and wild fish. Of these copepods, the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is the most extensively studied becau...
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Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasitic copepod that can cause serious disease outbreaks in salmonids. Previous work has shown that Atlantic salmon Salmo salar show very little, if any, tissue response to infection, whereas less-susceptible host species exhibit strong inflammatory responses. The...
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This study was conducted to determine the effects of a high level of infection of the parasitic copepod L. salmonis on the stress response and immunological status of Atlantic salmon. An initial low-level initial infection was carried out 14 d prior to a second infection in which twice as many paras...
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We have previously shown that Lepeophtheirus salmonis produces trypsin and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) that are most likely responsible for the limited inflammatory response of Atlantic salmon to infection. After removal of the dopamine and PGE₂, the immunomodulatory activity of unfractionated and...
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The host-adherence strategies employed by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of an infectious bacteremia of salmonids, are poorly understood. In addition to the outer protein coat or S-layer, A. salmonicida has both Type I and Type IV pili loci. The A. salmonicida Type I...
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This chapter covers the host range and specificity, morphology, life cycle, physiopathology, parasite-host interactions, role as disease vector and control and prevention (biological control, environmental approach, drug therapy, vaccination and insecticides) of Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus r...
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The consequences of high (735 copepodids fish-1) and low (243 copepodids fish-1) level exposures of size-matched juvenile pink and chum salmon to Lepeophtheirus salmonis copepodids were examined. At both levels of exposure the prevalence and abundance of L. salmonis was significantly higher on chum ...
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Emamectin benzoate (EMB; SLICE®) has been the drug of choice for the control of sea lice in salmon aquaculture within the past decade due to its ease of administration as well as efficacy on all parasitic stages of sea lice. This over-reliance has led to increased tolerance to the drug and a conseq...
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It is generally considered that stress causes decreased immune function in fish. In this study we examined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus) the effects of both short- (a single 15s out of water) and long-term (4weeks of daily handling 15s out of water) stress on plasma cortisol (free and t...