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The host-adherence strategies employed by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of an infectious bacteremia of salmonids, are poorly understood. In addition to the outer protein coat or S-layer, A. salmonicida has both Type I and Type IV pili loci. The A. salmonicida Type I...
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The cell envelope of Aeromonas salmonicida contains a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) essential for the physical integrity and functioning of bacterial cell membrane. Using a recently developed in-source fragmentation technique, we screened 39 typical and atypical isolates of A. salmonicida and established...
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Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a copepod parasite of salmonid fish, commonly referred to as sea lice, and is particularly pathogenic to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Although endemic on wild salmon, L. salmonis infection intensity rarely reaches clinical disease levels in wild fish. The stationary natu...
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Several immunostimulatory feed additives have shown the ability to induce protective responses in Atlantic salmon to infection with Lepeophtheirus salmonis. However, even the most encouraging results rarely surpass a 50% protective index in the host. That fact coupled with the well-documented limita...
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Sturgeon are harvested worldwide for their meat and eggs, sold as caviar and are among the most economically important fish species worldwide. A generally low physiological response to external stimuli/stressors has been documented in these phylogenetically primitive species. Considering how little ...
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Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a common parasite of salmonid fish and has a significant economic impact on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fish farms. Over time L. salmonis has developed resistance to a number of chemotherapeutants, making the discovery of new treatments important to maintain a profitable...
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We investigated the interaction of temperature and copper (Cu) on mitochondrial bioenergetics to gain insight into how temperature fluctuations imposed by natural phenomena or anthropogenic activities would modulate the effects of Cu on cellular energy homeostasis. Mitochondria were isolated from ra...
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It is generally considered that stress causes decreased immune function in fish. In this study we examined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus) the effects of both short- (a single 15s out of water) and long-term (4weeks of daily handling 15s out of water) stress on plasma cortisol (free and t...
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Farmed fish provide an increasing fraction of the human food supply, and are of major economic importance in many countries. As in the case of terrestrial agriculture, bringing together large numbers of animals of a single species (i.e., monoculture) increases the risk of infectious disease outbreak...
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Lepeophtheirus salmonis infections in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, have been characterized by little to no hyperplastic response and a biphasic immune response that results in chronic inflammation with tissue repair as the infection progresses. We hypothesized that CpG administration with prior lic...
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Laboratory-reared pink and chum salmon juveniles (∼2g) received an intraperitoneal injection with a commercial, unadjuvanted Aeromonas salmonicida bacterin or sterile saline. Relative to elongation factor-1A, expression levels of genes encoding the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β-1 (IL-1...
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Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasitic copepod that can cause serious disease outbreaks in salmonids. Previous work has shown that Atlantic salmon Salmo salar show very little, if any, tissue response to infection, whereas less-susceptible host species exhibit strong inflammatory responses. The...
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The consequences of high (735 copepodids fish-1) and low (243 copepodids fish-1) level exposures of size-matched juvenile pink and chum salmon to Lepeophtheirus salmonis copepodids were examined. At both levels of exposure the prevalence and abundance of L. salmonis was significantly higher on chum ...
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Moritella viscosa is the causative agent of winter ulcer disease in salmonids reared in North-Atlantic countries. In this study the effects of selected M. viscosa antigens on cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory gene expression in an Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus) macrophage-like cell line (SHK...
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Sturgeon are an important evolutionary taxa of which little is known regarding their responses to environmental factors. Water temperature strongly influences growth in fish; however, its effect on sturgeon immune responses is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess how 2 different temper...
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Mycobacterium shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are recently described mycobacteria commonly isolated from Chesapeake Bay striped bass Morone saxatilis. However, their distribution in striped bass outside of the Chesapeake region and their ability to infect alternative hosts have not been described. My...
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Parasitic copepods, in particular sea lice, have considerable impacts upon global freshwater and marine fisheries, with major economic consequences recognized primarily in aquaculture. Sea lice have been a contentious issue with regards to interactions between farmed and wild populations of fish, in...
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Control of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, relies heavily on chemotherapeutants. However, reduced efficacy of many treatments and need for integrated sea lice management plans require innovative strategies. Resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB), a major se...
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The effect of reduced feed ration on infestation levels with the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis and gene expression in juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha was tested in three laboratory trials. Body weight was significantly lower among fish on the reduced ration for 27, 34, or 65 d than f...
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Fish embryos were used to evaluate the interaction among common environmental and chemical stressors found in urban coastal environments, namely hypoxia, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, and estrogenic compounds. At the molecular level, the systems responding to these stressors share common...
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Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes serious disease outbreaks in both wild and farmed salmonids. As the relationship between L. salmonis and its hosts is not well understood, the current investigation was undertaken to investigate whether any immunomodulatory compounds co...