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Building on breakthroughs recently made at kraft mills, a survey of mechanical pulp and paper mill effluents was undertaken to gain insights concerning potential effects on fish reproduction. Effluents from seven Canadian mills were characterized chemically for conventional parameters such as bioche...
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Temperature data loggers were deployed in several northern Alberta lakes, and the data collected were used to compute the cumulative number of days for which water temperature exceeded the 13.5 degrees C minimum temperature required for yellow perch (Perca flavescens) growth. Tow-net and seine sampl...
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Two experiments using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were conducted to examine the combined effects of energy intake as manipulated by ration and pulp and paper mill effluent exposure over either one, or two consecutive reproductive cycles. This study demonstrated that the level of energy intak...
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For the last 20 years, studies conducted in North America, Scandinavia, and New Zealand have shown that pulp and paper mill effluents affect fish reproduction. Despite the level of effort applied, few leads are available regarding the factors responsible. Effluents affect reproduction in multiple fi...
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A system for the removal and control of dissolved oxygen (DO) from freshwater was designed and constructed with aquarium-type fish studies in mind. Degassed water was obtained using a partial vacuum of -14 psi, and DO regulated at an aquarium scale using electronically controlled aeration with timed...
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The presence of unidentified estrogens and androgens in effluents from pulp and paper mills is well documented. However, their role in effluent effects on fish reproduction remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that reproductive impacts of a modern pulp mill ...
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Naphthenic acids are known to be the most prevalent group of organic compounds in oil sands tailings-associated waters. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were exposed for four months to oil sands-influenced waters in two experimental systems located on an oil sands lease 30km north of Fort McMurray Al...
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The use of multiple spawning fishes in environmental effects monitoring programs has proven difficult for a number of reasons including the inability to predict reproductive investment and ensure synchronous sampling of reference and impacted populations. The estuarine resident northern mummichog (F...
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This study examined the hypothesis that chlorine dioxide bleaching used in pulp and paper production causes the formation of reproductive-endocrine disrupting compounds from plant sterols. This was tested by conducting a laboratory simulation of the chlorine dioxide oxidation of two plant sterols, b...
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Raw sewage and sewage at various stages of treatment were sampled from 15 municipal sewage treatment plants in south Queensland (Australia) and Canterbury (New Zealand). Estrogenic and androgenic activities were determined with sheep estrogen receptor and rainbow trout androgen receptor binding assa...
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In a previous cumulative impacts assessments of fish populations along the Waikato River, New Zealand, reduced ovary pigmentation was observed in the common bully (Gobiomorphus cotidianus) with an associated reduction in recruitment in the pulp mill-impacted Kopakorahi Arm of Lake Maraetai compared ...
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Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of a thermomechanical (TMP)/bleached kraft pulp and paper mill effluent (BKME), dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), hypoxia, and combinations of hypoxia and effluent on juvenile rainbow trout. In the first two experiments, trout were exposed for 4 weeks to 0...
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Toxic equivalent factors (TEFs) for eight polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners were derived with a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cell line, RTL-W1, and compared with TEFs obtained with a rat hepatoma cell line, H4IIE. Cells were exposed to a...
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The effects of point-source and diffuse discharges on resident populations of brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus (LeSueur, 1819)) in the Waikato River (New Zealand) were assessed at sites both upstream and downstream of point-source discharges. At each site, the population parameters, relati...
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This study combined bioassay-derived and direct chemical analysis of steroidal compounds in pulp and paper and municipal sewage effluent in order to determine the cause of masculinization of female mosquitofish. The bioassays used in this study consisted of androgen and estrogen receptor binding, an...
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Chemicals released into the environment by anthropogenic activities have been linked to estrogenic or androgenic effects in exposed wildlife, and there is a need to develop and validate rapid and cost-effective methods to quantify the total estrogenic and androgenic activity of environmental water s...
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Adult yellow perch were stocked into experimental ponds designed to test the biological effects of aquatic reclamation alternatives currently being pursued by the oil sands mining industry. Water-quality characteristics of oil sands-influenced water in the experimental ponds included increased salin...
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The acute and chronic effects of secondary-treated effluent from a New Zealand pulp and paper mill were assessed using both long-term adult and early life stage (ELS) laboratory exposures of rainbow trout. The relative impact of maternal exposure versus ELS exposure was assessed by a comparison of d...
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In order to test the viability of oil sands aquatic reclamation techniques, yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were stocked into three experimental ponds. Pond substrates consisted of either oil sands fine tailings or clay and lean oil sands deposited by the mining operations. Yellow perch were stocked...