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This study examined the potential biological hazard of pulp and paper waste solids. The solids examined were chosen on the basis of the range of wood-related organic extractives and were either primary solids screened from the effluent stream before secondary treatment, or biosolids from aerated sta...
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The presence of unidentified estrogens and androgens in effluents from pulp and paper mills is well documented. However, their role in effluent effects on fish reproduction remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that reproductive impacts of a modern pulp mill ...
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In a previous cumulative impacts assessments of fish populations along the Waikato River, New Zealand, reduced ovary pigmentation was observed in the common bully (Gobiomorphus cotidianus) with an associated reduction in recruitment in the pulp mill-impacted Kopakorahi Arm of Lake Maraetai compared ...
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A method to evaluate the expression of three hormone responsive genes, vitellogenin (estrogens), spiggin (androgens), and an androgen receptor (AR beta) using real-time PCR in threespine stickleback is presented. Primers were designed from previously characterised spiggin and AR beta sequences, whil...
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The use of multiple spawning fishes in environmental effects monitoring programs has proven difficult for a number of reasons including the inability to predict reproductive investment and ensure synchronous sampling of reference and impacted populations. The estuarine resident northern mummichog (F...
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Naphthenic acids are known to be the most prevalent group of organic compounds in oil sands tailings-associated waters. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were exposed for four months to oil sands-influenced waters in two experimental systems located on an oil sands lease 30km north of Fort McMurray Al...
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The objective of this study was to examine the immune toxicity of the alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) retene (7-isopropyl-1-methyl phenanthrene) in rainbow trout. Retene is a common alkyl PAH associated with combustion of terrestrial plants or industrial effluents. Rainbow trout were inj...
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Estuarine eutrophication as a result of agricultural land use, including the use of chemical fertilizers, is increasing worldwide. Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada has very high agricultural intensity by international standards with approximately 44% of the land area under production, and some wat...
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Naphthenic acids are the major organic constituents in waters impacted by oil sands. To investigate their immunotoxicity, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected with naphthenic acids extracted from aged oil sands tailings water. In two experiments, rainbow trout were injected intraperiton...
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While large numbers of hatchery reared salmonids have been stocked into the Great Lakes, few of these introduced populations have become self-substaining. Many salmonid populations are contaminated by organochlorine chemicals, and some experience embryonic and fry mortality when reared in hatcheries...
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The responses of shortfin eel (Anguilla australis) to discharges from two pulp and paper mills, municipal wastewater, and a geothermal power plant wastewater were examined. Eels were caged at 3 sites along the Tarawera River, North Island, New Zealand, to explore effects of a 3-wk exposure down a co...
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Two experiments using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were conducted to examine the combined effects of energy intake as manipulated by ration and pulp and paper mill effluent exposure over either one, or two consecutive reproductive cycles. This study demonstrated that the level of energy intak...
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The acute lethality of low dissolved oxygen (DO) was examined in laboratory studies using several New Zealand freshwater fish and two invertebrates at 15 degree C. The 48-h LC sub(50) value was used as the endpoint for acute DO sensitivity as, owing to rapid mortality, this was found to best approxi...
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Sewage effluent application to land is a treatment technology that requires appropriate consideration of various design factors. Soil type, level of sewage pre-treatment and irrigation rate were assessed for their influence on the success of soil treatment in removing pharmaceuticals remaining after...
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Rana pipiens and R. clamitans were evaluated during 1993-94 at 8 wetland sites in Ontario, Canada, 4 of which were within apple orchards, to determine if environmental changes associated with orchard management affected measured biological parameters. Size, age, genetic variation, condition indices,...
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Fish collected from the receiving areas of 12 Canadian pulp mills were examined, including sites receiving effluent from kraft mills using chlorine as well as sulfite mills. Field collections included sampling of receiving water for chemistry and toxicity testing, and sampling of local fish for orga...
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The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of chronic exposure to municipal sewage treatment effluent at environmentally relevant concentrations on immune parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), including the assessment of potential differences in reactivity betwe...
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Chemicals released into the environment by anthropogenic activities have been linked to estrogenic or androgenic effects in exposed wildlife, and there is a need to develop and validate rapid and cost-effective methods to quantify the total estrogenic and androgenic activity of environmental water s...
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For the last 20 years, studies conducted in North America, Scandinavia, and New Zealand have shown that pulp and paper mill effluents affect fish reproduction. Despite the level of effort applied, few leads are available regarding the factors responsible. Effluents affect reproduction in multiple fi...
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Adult yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were stocked into experimental ponds designed to emulate possible aquatic reclamation alternatives of the oil sands mining industry. After 5 and 11 months, mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) activity, Liver conjugation enzymes, bile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (...