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Sixth-instar larvae of Choristoneura fumiferana were treated with LD50 concn of the juvenile hormone analogues fenoxycarb and methoprene. Fenoxycarb caused an initial decrease, then an increase, in haemolymph concn. Fat-body glycogen was depleted initially, then relatively increased in concn towards...
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Laboratory studies showed that the insect growth regulator Altosid 5E, applied at doses ranging from 5 to 50 ppb did not interfere with the preparasitic, parasitic or postparasitic development of Romanomermis culicivorax, a mermithid parasite of mosquitoes. Both Altosid 5E and R. culicivorax were se...
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The effectiveness of topical applications of the juvenile hormone analogue fenoxycarb against selected stages of Choristoneura fumiferana was determined. Fenoxycarb prevented eggs at an early stage of embryogenesis (0-24 h old) from hatching, and these eggs were more sensitive to the compound than o...
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This review covers the classification, life history, physiological and pathological host-parasite relationships, and biological control potential of mermithid and rhabditid nematodes parasitic in simuliid flies. West African strains of Simulium damnosum now developing resistance to Abate are obvious...
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Newly hatched Aedes aegypti larvae were experimentally infected with controlled levels of Reesimermis nielseni and the development of the parasite was recorded. The nematode increased in length by 18-fold and in width by 16-fold during a relatively short 6 to 8-day parasitic phase. Most of the nemat...
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The nervous system of Romanomermis culicivorax was investigated at different developmental stages for the distribution of the neuropeptide FMRF-amide. The results suggest that FMRF-amide-like peptides is widely distributed within the nervous system of R. culicivorax and might function as a neurohorm...
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Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the effects of two carbamates, carbofuran (an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) and fenoxycarb (a juvenile hormone analog), on survival and infectivity of the infective juveniles (IJ) of Steinernema feltiae Umea strain and Steinernema carpocapsae All st...
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This article provides a detailed overview of the rationale for key aspects of the protocol of the Digitalis Investigation Group (DIG) trial. It also highlights unusual aspects of the study implementation and the baseline characteristics. The DIG trial is a large, simple, international placebo-contro...
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When larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.) infected with Romanomermis culicivorax were fed on a diet low in quantity or protein content or both, the number of postparasites that emerged from the hosts decreased and host mortality increased marginally. Parasitic development was prolonged and became asynchrono...
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Mermithids of three genera and species are known to parasitise North American Simuliids, and a more varied Mermithid fauna probably exists [cf. RAE/B 51, 135]. The host specificity of Mermithid parasites of Simuliids is variable, but the nematodes do not appear to infect other stream fauna. The spor...
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A description is given of an axenic laboratory method for rearing Choristoneura fumiferana larvae that is suitable for physiological studies. The rearing procedure is a modification of the method of D. G. Grisdale (1984), using a wheat-germ based synthetic diet. The axenic rearing method resulted in...
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In further investigations on the effects of parasitism by Mermis nigrescens on locusts [see RAE/A 61, 4050; 63, 1919], second- and third-instar nymphs of Locusta migratoria (L.) were infected with ova of the mermithid. After 24 days (when parasitic development had been completed), the haemolymph of ...
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Trophosomes of the mosquito parasitic mermithid Romanomermis culicivorax and two strains of the simuliid parasitic mermithid Mesomermis flumenalis (Neomesomermis flumenalis) contained in order of prevalence: triacylglycerols, phospholipids, sterols and sterol esters. Triacylglycerols in the trophoso...
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Treatment of 3rd-instar larvae and recently moulted pupae of the crucifer pest Delia radicum with methoprene suppressed eclosion to the adult stage in relation to the concentration applied. The fecundity of adults that developed from larvae and pupae treated with methoprene was not reduced compared ...
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Laboratory methods were developed for culturing the free-living stages of Neomesomermis flumenalis, a mermithid parasite of simuliids, especially Simulium venustum Say and the complex of Prosimulium mixtum Syme & Davies and P. fuscum Syme & Davies, from simuliid larvae collected in the field...
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Cellulose acetate electrophoresis was used to determine the degree to which isozyme banding patterns differed among 4 strains of steinernematid nematodes that had been recycled or stored at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C: Steinernema feltiae Umea strain, S. carpocapsae A11 strain, S. riobravis [S. r...
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Diflubenzuron 25% w.p. applied at concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.1% w/v), which were effective against laboratory populations of the anthomyiid Delia radicum, did not affect the hatching of the eggs of its predator and parasitoid, the staphylinid Aleochara bilineata. Applied externally in distilled ...
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The anatomical relations of the neuroendocrine systems in larvae of Simulium venustum Say and the complex of Prosimulium mixtum Syme & Davies and P. fuscum Syme & Davies are described from histological examination. The neuroendocrine system in the brain showed morphological similarities to c...
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The sterols in the trophosomes of Romanomermis culicivorax and Neomesomermis flumenalis were identified and compared with the sterols in the haemolymph of their larval insect hosts, Aedes aegypti and Simulium venustum, respectively. The C26 sterol 22-trans-24-norcholesta-5, 22-dien-3 beta -ol was pr...
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Four strains of entomopathogenic nematodes were recycled in vivo for 2 years at temperatures ranging from 10 to 25 degrees C before the infectivity of their juveniles was compared. Infectivity was examined by measuring LC50 values for Galleria mellonella larvae at bioassay temperatures ranging from ...
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Histochemical investigations showed that Romanomermis culicivorax in experimentally infected larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.) were found to accumulate storage products, primarily in the trophosome, from the fourth day of parasitic development onwards. Lipids constitute the predominant storage metabolite...