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Part I of this 2-part review examined the clinical stages, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and epidemiology of Johne's disease, providing information relevant to Canada, where available. In Part II, a critical review of the economic impacts of the disease, risk factors, and important control measures ar...
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Three serum ELISAs for detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mptb) were evaluated against culture of tissue and feces samples from 994 dairy cows collected at slaughter. Culture of ileum and associated lymph nodes for Mptb were positive for 160 (16.1%) of the 9...
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A 2-year-old, purebred Holstein heifer with exercise intolerance and cardiovascular compromise was diagnosed at postmortem with tetralogy of Fallot, which typically results in death within a few months of life. Survival past the age of 2 was unexpected. The concurrent endocarditis of the pulmonic va...
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Diagnostic tests are invaluable to the practice of veterinary medicine. Using them correctly and interpreting the results appropriately depend on having a good understanding of the basic principles outlined in this article. Topics covered include sensitivity and specificity, agreement among tests, u...
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The purpose of this research was to evaluate herd and cow-level Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) diagnostic tests within non-infected and low to moderate within-herd prevalence MAP-infected herds. Specific objectives were to estimate herd-level sensitivity and specificity of env...
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Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative organism of Johne's disease. Although fecal culture is considered the standard diagnostic test, the long incubation times, costs, and intermittent shedding of MAP hinder efficient screening programs based on culture results. The primar...
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This study evaluated test characteristics of environmental culture (EC) for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in 32 herds over a 2-year period. Individual fecal samples were collected every 6 mo and environmental samples every 3 mo. Individual fecal culture was p...
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The objective of the study was to evaluate the utility of a Petrifilm-based on-farm culture system when used to make selective antimicrobial treatment decisions on low somatic cell count cows (<200,000 cells/mL) at drying off. A total of 729 cows from 16 commercial dairy herds with a low bulk tank s...
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Cow-level milk ELISA results can be used to determine herd Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status. Milk sample collection is minimally invasive and ELISA results can be obtained quickly and economically. The objectives were to evaluate the herd-level test characteristics of 3 commerc...
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Cow-level milk ELISA results can be used to determine herd Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status. Milk sample collection is minimally invasive and ELISA results can be obtained quickly and economically. The objectives were to evaluate the herd-level test characteristics of 3 commerc...
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The primary objective was to compare microbiological results of the University of Minnesota Tri-plate and the 3M Petrifilm Staph Express (STX) Count Plate to standard culture techniques for identification of clinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The secondary objective was to evaluate t...
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Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are used in Johne's disease (JD) control programs as a first screening for presence of the disease in a herd. A high sensitivity of the ELISA is therefore important, yet the commonly used ELISAs have relatively low sensitivity. The inclusion of an abs...
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The objective was to determine test characteristics and compare 2 potential on-farm culture systems for clinical mastitis, the Minnesota Easy Culture System II Bi-plate and Petrifilm. The tests were evaluated using clinically positive mastitic milk samples (n=282) to determine their ability to diffe...
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The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Mptb) in culled dairy cattle in Eastern Canada and Maine was determined to be 16.1% (95% confidence interval 13.8 to 18.3%) based on a systematic random sample of abattoir cattle. Mesenteric lymph nodes and ileum from 984 cows were examine...
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Paired samples of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ileum and lymph node from 204 culled dairy cows were investigated for evidence of infection by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Of the samples, 151 were from animals that were tissue-culture positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis...
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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) was developed and optimized using 22 bp sense and 20 bp antisense primers in the thymidine kinase (TK) coding region. The amplification product is 183 bp long. The PCR optimization was done using BHV-1 tissue culture super...