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Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative bacterium of Johne’s disease (JD) in ruminants. The control of JD in the dairy industry is challenging, but can be improved with a better understanding of the diversity and distribution of MAP subtypes. Previously established molec...
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Compared with blanket dry cow therapy (DCT), the selective antimicrobial treatment of cows based upon on-farm culture results has the potential to reduce the amount of antimicrobials used in dairy production. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of a Petrifilm (3M Canada, L...
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Objective:

To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of results of initial and repeated milk ELISAs (at 6- or 12-month intervals) to detect cows that were shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (ie, were infectious) and to evaluate factors influencing the probability that the r...

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Although cell-mediated immunity based diagnostics can be integral assays for early detection of various diseases of dairy cows, processing of blood samples for these tests is time-sensitive, often within 24 hours of collection, to maintain white blood cell viability. Therefore, to improve utility an...
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The focus of this research was to improve Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) control and management programs through increased understanding of the diagnostic detection ability of common pathogen and antibody assays over seasons and lactation stages, as well as through the novel use o...
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The objective of the study was to evaluate the utility of a Petrifilm-based on-farm culture system when used to make selective antimicrobial treatment decisions on low somatic cell count cows (<200,000 cells/mL) at drying off. A total of 729 cows from 16 commercial dairy herds with a low bulk tank s...
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Cow-level milk ELISA results can be used to determine herd Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status. Milk sample collection is minimally invasive and ELISA results can be obtained quickly and economically. The objectives were to evaluate the herd-level test characteristics of 3 commerc...
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Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative organism of Johne's disease. Although fecal culture is considered the standard diagnostic test, the long incubation times, costs, and intermittent shedding of MAP hinder efficient screening programs based on culture results. The primar...
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This study evaluated test characteristics of environmental culture (EC) for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in 32 herds over a 2-year period. Individual fecal samples were collected every 6 mo and environmental samples every 3 mo. Individual fecal culture was p...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate a 3M Petrifilm-based on-farm culture system for the detection of intramammary infection (IMI) in low somatic cell count (SCC) cows (<200,000 cells/mL) at drying off. The main objectives were to determine the test characteristics and the predictive values of ...
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The purpose of this research was to evaluate herd and cow-level Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) diagnostic tests within non-infected and low to moderate within-herd prevalence MAP-infected herds. Specific objectives were to estimate herd-level sensitivity and specificity of env...
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Johne's disease or paratuberculosis in cattle is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Although the stages of infection have been well described, very few virulence factors of MAP have been studied in detail. We aimed to study the localization and immunogenicity of member...
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The primary objective was to compare microbiological results of the University of Minnesota Tri-plate and the 3M Petrifilm Staph Express (STX) Count Plate to standard culture techniques for identification of clinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The secondary objective was to evaluate t...
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The objective was to determine test characteristics and compare 2 potential on-farm culture systems for clinical mastitis, the Minnesota Easy Culture System II Bi-plate and Petrifilm. The tests were evaluated using clinically positive mastitic milk samples (n=282) to determine their ability to diffe...
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Paired samples of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ileum and lymph node from 204 culled dairy cows were investigated for evidence of infection by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Of the samples, 151 were from animals that were tissue-culture positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis...
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The Bcr-Abl oncoprotein plays a major role in the development and progression of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Several studies have suggested that the expression levels of Bcr-Abl are elevated at disease progression to blast crisis and that this plays a significant role in the achievement of drug ...
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During a 10-month period in 1999, 994 serum and tissue samples were collected from dairy cows at slaughter in eastern Canada. The sources of these cattle were from all four Atlantic Canadian provinces along with some cows from the state of Maine. The sera were used to assess the agreement of three c...
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Recent international developments in the area of infectious disease control and nontariff trade barriers, along with possible zoonotic concerns, have provoked a revival of interest in Johne's disease in Canada and elsewhere. The bacterium causing Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium subspecies parat...
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Part I of this 2-part review examined the clinical stages, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and epidemiology of Johne's disease, providing information relevant to Canada, where available. In Part II, a critical review of the economic impacts of the disease, risk factors, and important control measures ar...
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Recent success in phase I/II clinical trials (Konstan, M. W.; Davis, P. B.; Wagener, J. S.; Hilliard, K. A.; Stern, R. C.; Milgram, L. J.; Kowalczyk, T. H.; Hyatt, S. L.; Fink, T. L.; Gedeon, C. R.; Oette, S. M.; Payne, J. M.; Muhammad, O.; Ziady, A. G.; Moen, R. C.; Cooper, M. J. Hum. Gene Ther. 20...
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Diagnostic tests are invaluable to the practice of veterinary medicine. Using them correctly and interpreting the results appropriately depend on having a good understanding of the basic principles outlined in this article. Topics covered include sensitivity and specificity, agreement among tests, u...