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Routine and post-exercise metabolic rates were measured for juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis infected with the microsporidium gill parasite Loma salmonae under laboratory conditions. Rainbow trout increased routine and post-exercise metabolic rate in r...
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Outbreaks of columnaris diseases occurred on 2 trout farms in July 1988. Only a small percentage of fish was affected on each farm. On one farm affected fish had areas of destruction of the ventral body wall leading to herniation of internal organs. On the second farm lesions resembled those of furu...
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Survival analysis techniques were used to compare experimental exposure methods of Loma salmonae (Microspora) in rainbow trout (RBT) by measuring xenoma onset and clearance time. Twenty-eight naive RBT were exposed per os (fed L. salmonae spores) and 28 RBT were exposed by cohabitation with 28 L. sa...
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An experiment was designed to study the effect of dietary quinine hydrochloride (61 mg/kg of fish/day), on the rate of xenoma formation in the gills of Loma salmonae-infected juvenile rainbow trout maintained at a water temperature of 15 degrees C. Almost all (90.9%) control fish had developed xenom...
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Two trials were conducted to assess the effects of repeated prophylactic formalin treatments on the gill structure of salmonids. In trial 1, which involved Atlantic salmon, approaching smoltification in a commercial facility, fish were treated with either 167 or 250 mg/litre formalin for 90 min ever...
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In the spring of 1988 more than 30% of 13 000 market weight rainbow trout died on a trout farm in southwestern Ontario. The fish showed signs typical of oxygen deprivation with listlessness, crowding of water inlets and gasping at the water surface. Water temperature, pH and oxygen levels were norma...
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Ocular lesions associated with natural and experimental outbreaks of gas bubble disease (GBD) in commercial salmonids were assessed histologically and by scanning electron microscopy. Small gas emboli were first detected in the choroid gland of the posterior uvea. In subacute and chronic cases, bubb...
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The effects of twice weekly exposure to formalin [formaldehyde] (200 mg/litre in a 1-h static bath) on juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (57.4 g initial weight) were assessed in a 12-week growth trial. Growth rates, appetite, feed conversion and body condition index of fish were not signifi...
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Since it was first reported in 1987 at a hatchery in British Columbia, Loma salmonae has become increasingly important as an emerging parasite affecting the Canadian salmonid aquaculture industry. L. salmonae causes Microsporidial Gill Disease of Salmon (MGDS) in farmed Pacific salmonids, Oncorhynch...
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Clinical signs associated with L. salmonae infection in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum)) arise when the parasite enters sporogony and forms xenoparasitic complexes (xenomas) within the gill. A thermal unit (TU) model, devised to predict the timing of xenoma formation, under condit...
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Diseases are an integral part of the existence of all animals including both cultured and wild fish populations. Diseases among cultured fish can cause death, poor growth and food conversion, increased production costs and interrupted production schedules. The main objective of this study was to con...
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In November 1991 the daily mortality rate increased from 0.01 to 0.06% in 2 netpen-reared Atlantic salmon cages at a fish farm located in coastal waters off British Columbia. Clinical signs and PM findings were consistent with those of a disease associated with a rickettsia-like organism in farmed C...
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12 tanks of juvenile rainbow trout of mean weight 98 g were treated twice weekly for 11 weeks with a one-hour static bath of chloramine-T (10 mg/litre). 16 fish from each tank were killed for examination. The morphometric indices of gill damage and the histochemical characteristics of gill mucous ce...
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A fixation regime which combined cryopreservation, freeze drying and vapour fixation with osmium tetroxide, was found to preserve the mucous coat of trout skin for ambient temperature scanning electron microscopy. The regime was used to study changes to the mucous coat of trout skin during a spontan...
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Specific diseases identified from harvested wild baitfish (Notropis spp.) in Ontario included skin necrosis and/or 'tail-rot' caused by either saprophytic fungi (Saprolegnia spp.) or filamentous bacteria such as Cytophaga columnaris or C. psychrophila, furunculosis caused by Aeromonas salmonicida su...
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Cationic quaternary ammonium compounds such as Zephiran have been used for years to treat fish diseases, especially bacterial gill disease, in spite of the sometimes high mortality associated wit treatment. Rainbow trout exposed to Zephiran concentrations of 1-40 ppm developed, at all concentrations...
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With respect to the culture of salmonids, environmental diseases per se, and the specific role of environmental factors in the genesis of infectious disease conditions, are often trivialized and in many cases have not been explored beyond a perfunctory level. The present trend toward use of recircul...
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A range of neural pathology, in particular meningitis with sporadic encephalitic extension, can develop in salmonids infected with Renibacterium salmoninarum, the agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). Tissues from 134 Atlantic salmon and 164 chinook salmon were selected on the basis of their havi...