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Ibogaine is a natural alkaloid of Voacanga africana that is effective in the treatment of withdrawal symptoms and craving in drug addicts. As the synaptic and cellular basis of ibogaine's actions are not well understood, this study tested the hypothesis that ibogaine and Voacanga africana extract mo...
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Previously we have found that extracellular guanosine (Guo) has neuroprotective properties in in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, extracellular Guo significantly increased in the ipsilateral hemisphere within 2 h following focal stroke in rats, and remained elevated for one week. Therefore, we hypothes...
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SUMMARY 1. In recent years, the role of oestrogen in women's health has been a subject of considerable scientific and popular debate. There is unquestionable evidence that oestrogen has both potent and long-lasting effects on several vital organ systems, including the cardiovascular system, the...
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In the present investigation, electrophysiological recordings of thalamic relay neurons were used to investigate the role of estrogen as a modulator of visceral afferent information through the PBN to forebrain structures. Experiments were done in anaesthetized (sodium thiobutabarbitol; 100 mg/kg) m...
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Current in vitro models of stroke involve applying oxygen-glucose deprived (OGD) media over an entire brain slice or plate of cultured neurons. Thus, these models fail to mimic the focal nature of stroke as observed clinically and with in vivo rodent models of stroke. Our aim was to develop a novel ...
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Stroke-induced lesions of the insular cortex in the brain have been linked to autonomic dysfunction (sympathoexcitation) leading to arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death. In experimental models, systemic estrogen administration in male rats has been shown to reduce stroke-induced cell death in t...
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The current investigation examined the effect of estrogen in the insular cortex (IC) on autonomic tone and cardiac baroreceptor reflex function and sought to determine if modulation of neurotransmission was responsible for mediating this effect. Experiments were performed in Inactin-anaesthetized, m...
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Relaxins are members of the insulin peptide superfamily. Previous evidence has shown that relaxin pretreatment reduces cortical infarct size in anesthetized, male rats receiving permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Therefore, the current study was designed to determine if estrogenic me...
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Microstimulation of the rat posterior insular cortex in phase with the ECG R wave elicits pure cardiac effects unaccompanied by changes in blood pressure or respiration. This technique has successfully demonstrated cardiac chronotropic organisation and arrhythmogenesis within the insula. Pathways ex...
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Several studies have suggested that a potential mechanism for estrogen-mediated neuroprotection following experimental stroke is a result of modulating glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Our laboratory has shown that in male rats, estrogen injection (systemic or direct intracortical injection) resul...
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The steroid hormone 17 beta-estradiol and its respective receptors have been found in several cardiovascular nuclei in the central nervous system including the parabrachial nucleus. In a previous study, we provided evidence that 17 beta-estradiol attenuated an outward potassium conductance in parabr...
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Estrogen has received considerable attention as a potential therapeutic agent against various forms of neurodegenerative diseases including stroke. Experimental data in animal models of stroke have provided exhaustive evidence of the neuroprotective properties of this steroid hormone. Our laboratory...
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The steroid hormone 17beta-estradiol and its respective receptors have been found in several cardiovascular nuclei in the central nervous system including the parabrachial nucleus. In a previous study, we provided evidence that 17beta-estradiol attenuated an outward potassium conductance in parabrac...
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The parabrachial nucleus (PBN) has a prominent anatomical connection with the nucleus of the solitary tract as well as other central baroreflex centres which suggests a role for the PBN in the regulation of this cardiovascular reflex. This study examined the effects of a reversible, bilateral blocka...
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Mild NMDA receptor activation is correlated with neuroprotection in models of cerebral ischemia. Neuroprotection with NMDA manifests as a form of ischemic tolerance and involves the induction of cellular stress systems sensitive to disturbances in cellular calcium homeostasis. Unilateral micro-injec...
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Recent investigations have provided evidence to suggest systemic estrogen administration prevented or reversed the sympathoexcitation observed following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in male rats. The present investigation sought to determine the role of estrogen injected directly into the...
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Ischemic tolerance describes a phenomenon whereby subcritical stimuli evoke cellular protective mechanisms resulting in increased tolerance to subsequent ischemia. In the present study we propose that the cytoprotective effects attributed to 17β-estradiol and tunicamycin in an in vivo rodent model ...
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Western Ontario, 1995. Includes bibliographical references.
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Berberis vulgaris fruit (barberry) is known for its antiarrhythmic and sedative effects in Iranian traditional medicine. The effects of crude aqueous extract of barberry on rat arterial blood pressure and the contractile responses of isolated rat aortic rings and mesenteric bed to phenylephrine were...
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We tested the hypothesis that Substance P (SP) produces the same effects as cocaine by examining their actions on excitatory synaptic transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). SP produced an irreversible depression of non-NMDA receptor mediated EPSC: EC50:0.12 uM; maximal suppression: −33.4 ± ...
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Previous investigations have demonstrated that the peptides substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), cholecystokinin (CCK), neurotensin (NT) and somatostatin (SOM) significantly modulate the glutamate-mediated transmission of visceral information through the parabrachial nucleus (PB...
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Estrogen has previously been shown to significantly change sympathetic and parasympathetic system output via an action within the central nuclei responsible for regulating autonomic tone. These estrogen-induced changes were observed within 30 min of systemic administration and could be blocked by th...
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Several studies have provided evidence to suggest that estrogen results in a significant reduction (approximately 50%) in the size of the ischemic zone in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke in a rat. The current study was done to demonstrate whether this estrogen-induced red...
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Systemic estrogen administration in male rats has been shown to normalize the autonomic dysfunction and reduce the infarct size after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Therefore, the present investigation determined if local microinjection of estrogen at the site of the infarct also...