Results

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Systemic estrogen administration in male rats has been shown to normalize the autonomic dysfunction and reduce the infarct size after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Therefore, the present investigation determined if local microinjection of estrogen at the site of the infarct also...
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The following experiments were designed to investigate the role of estrogen in central autonomic nuclei on autonomic tone and reflex control of heart rate. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with sodium thiobutabarbital (100 mg/kg) and instrumented to record blood pressure and heart rate. Ef...
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The present study was designed to determine a dose-response relationship between apocynin and infarct volume as well as to provide a possible molecular mechanism mediating this effect. We tested the hypothesis that apocynin protects against cell death following stroke and reperfusion injury. Apocyni...
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This study examined the effects of substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on synaptic transmission in a pontine slice containing the parabrachial nucleus (PBN). Stimulation of the ventral, external lateral portion of the PBN elicited glutamate-mediated EPSCs in cells recorded us...
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The role of estrogen in central autonomic nuclei was examined in ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats supplemented daily for 7 days with either estrogen (5 microg/kg; sc) or saline (0.9%; sc). Animals were subsequently anaesthetized with sodium thiobutabarbital (Inactin; 100 mg/kg; ip) and inst...
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We have developed a novel rodent animal model of reperfusion injury following stroke. In this model, blood flow through the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is temporarily occluded by placing gentle pressure on sutures behind the artery along three separate branches. The sutures remain in place for a pe...
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We studied the possible neuroprotective action of relaxin in a rat stroke model. Relaxin (10 ng in 200 nL saline) or saline was injected into the secondary somatosensory cortex of anesthetized rats. Thirty minutes after treatment, the right middle cerebral artery was occluded, causing ischemic condi...
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The putative neurotransmitters in ascending visceral pathways were investigated by recording changes in the response of thalamic neuronal activity evoked by vagal stimulation before and after neurotransmitter antagonist injections into the parabrachial nucleus (PB). Male Wistar rats (n = 39) were an...
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Autonomic dysreflexia is an autonomic behavioural condition that manifests after spinal cord injury (SCI) and is characterized by acute, episodic hypertension following afferent stimulation below the level of the injury. Common triggers of autonomic dysreflexia include colorectal distension (CRD), a...
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Substance P (SP) and cocaine employ similar mechanisms to modify excitatory synaptic transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region implicated in substance abuse. Here we explored, using NAc slices, whether SP effects on these synaptic responses were altered in rats that have been sensitized ...
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Among the many benefits of long-term hormone replacement therapy to postmenopausal women is a significant reduction in risk for and progression of cardiovascular disease. However, long-term estrogen replacement therapy has been associated with several undesirable, and likely dose-dependent, side-eff...
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Cholecystokinin and neurotensin are present in fibres innervating the parabrachial nucleus and have previously been shown to modulate the flow of visceral afferent information through the parabrachial nucleus to the cortex in the rat. This study examined the effects of cholecystokinin and neurotensi...
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Previously we demonstrated that glutamatergic and noradrenergic receptors mediate the relay of visceral information through the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), somatostatin (SOM), neurotensin (NT), and cholecystokinin (CCK) may modulate t...
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Abstract:  Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes controlling the formation and disposition of estrogens and their metabolites have been shown to influence breast cancer risk. Environmental and lifestyle factors may interact with estrogen metabolism polymorphisms to influence breast cancer risk. We...
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Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the peptides, neurotensin (NT), cholecystokinin (CCK), substance P (SP), somatostatin (SOM), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), have a role in modulating ascending visceral sensory information from the nucleus of the solitary tract to the t...
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The parabrachial nucleus (PBN) is a regulatory nucleus that relays visceral information from the brain stem to the cortex. Immunohistochemical studies have shown that the levels of various neuropeptides in the PBN were changed after visceral afferent activation. Because the major transmitter relayin...
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Cervical vagal stimulation for 2 h results in a depressed baroreflex sensitivity produced by an enhanced sympathetic output, as indicated by increased plasma norepinephrine levels. The current study examined the role of the insular cortex in modulating the vagal stimulation-induced changes in barore...
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Evidence is increasingly accumulating in support of a role for the steroid hormone 17beta-estradiol to modify neuronal functions in the mammalian CNS, especially in autonomic centers. In addition to its well known slowly developing and long lasting actions (genomic), estrogen can also rapidly modula...
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In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that selective activation of estrogen receptor subtypes (ERalpha and ERbeta) would be neuroprotective following ischemia and/or ischemia-reperfusion, as well as prevent the associated autonomic dysfunction. The selective ERalpha agonist, PPT, when admin...
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The current investigation examines the effect of acute and chronic estrogen administration on baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic tone following 2 h of vagal afferent stimulation in ovariectomized female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and supplemented daily for 7 days with eit...
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The following experiments were done to determine whether changes in baroreflex sensitivity evoked by cervical vagus nerve stimulation are due to sympathoexcitation mediated by the parabrachial nucleus. The relative contribution of cardiopulmonary and general gastric afferents within the cervical vag...